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Grammar - Англійська мова PDF Друк e-mail
Англійська мова - Англійська мова - Кунатенко Й. Ю.

Grammar Revision Tables

terminology of English grammar

Частини мови                                    Parts of Speech

Іменник                                              Noun

Неозначений артикль                          Indefinite Article

Означений артикль                             Definite Article

Злічувані іменники                             Count Nouns

Незлічувані іменники                         Noncount  Nouns

Абстрактні іменники                           Abstract Nouns

Число                                                  Number

Oднина/множина                                Singular/plural

Загальний відмінок                             Common Сase

Присвійний відмінок                          Possessive Сase

Рід                                                      Gender

Прикметник                                      Adjective

Ступені порівняння                             Degrees of Comparison

Вищий ступінь порівняння                 Comparative Degree

Найвищий ступінь порівняння                        Superlative Degree

Числівники                                        Numerals

Кількісні числівники                           Cardinal Numerals

Порядкові числівники                         Ordinal Numerals

Займенники                                       Pronouns

Особові займенники                           Personal Pronouns

Присвійні займенники                                    Possessive Pronouns

Зворотні займенники                          Reflexive Pronouns

Взаємні займенники                           Reciprocal Pronouns

Вказівні займенники                           Demonstrative Pronouns

Питальні займенники                          Interrogative Pronouns

Сполучні займенники                         Conjunctive Pronouns

Неозначені займенники                                  Indefinite Pronouns

Заперечні займенники                         Negative Pronoun

Кількісні займенники                         Quantitative Pronouns

Дієслово                                             Verb

Правильні дієслова                             Regular Verbs

Неправильні дієслова                          Irregular Verbs

Особові форми дієслова                      Finite Forms of the Verbs

Неозначені часи                                  Indefinite Tenses

Тривалі часи                                       Continuous Tenses

Перфектні (доконані) часи                   Perfect Tenses

Перфектно-тривалі часи                      Perfect Continuous Tenses


NOUNS: SINGULAR AND PLURAL

Singular

Plural

Uses

day

bird

street

rose

day s

bird s

street s

rose s

The plural of a noun is usually made by adding  -s to       the singular

tomato

match

dish

class

box

tomato es

match es

dish es

class es

box es

Nouns ending in -o , -ch , -sh , -s , -ss or - x form their plural by adding -es .

(NOTE: words of foreign origin or abbreviated words ending in -o add -s only: dynamo - dynamo s ; kilo - kilo s ; photo - photo s ; piano - piano s ) ;

baby
city

bab ies
cit ies

Nouns ending in -y following a consonant form their plural by dropping the -y and adding -ies .

loaf

wife

wolf

calf

half

knife

shelf

life

sheaf

loa ves

wi ves

wol ves

cal ves

hal ves ves kni

shel ves

li ves

shea ves

Twelve nouns ending in -f or -fe drop the -f or -fe and add -ves : loaf, wife, wolf, calf, half, leaf, self, knife, life, sheaf, shelf, thief .

(Exceptions: beliefs, chiefs, roofs, cliffs, safes, cuffs, handkerchiefs ).

The nouns hoof, scarf and wharf take either -s or -ves in the plural: wharfs or wharves , hoofs or hooves ; scarfs or scarves .

man

woman

foot

goose

tooth

louse mouse

child

men

women

feet

geese

teeth

lice

mice

children

A few nouns form their plural by a vowel change.

sheep

deer

fish

species

swine

sheep

deer

fish

species

swine

Some nouns have the same form for singular and plural.

crisis

criterion datum

crises

criteria

data

Some nouns that English has borrowed from other languages have foreign plurals.

NOUNS: COMMON AND POSSESSIVE CASE

a) SingularNoun

the girl

my wife

my baby

Tom

Archimedes

Pythagoras

Thomas

Carlos

my brother-in

-law

Possessive Form

the girl's name

my wife's coat

my baby's toys

Tom's friend

Archimedes' Law

Pythagoras' Theorem

Thomas's/Thomas'

Carlos's/Carlos'

my brother-in-law's guitar

1. 's is used with singular nouns not   ending in -s .

2. Classical names ending in -s usually add only the apostrophe.

3. Other names ending in -s take 's or the apostrophe alone.

4. With compounds, the last word       takes the 's .

b) Plural Noun

the girls

the men

my children

Possessive Form

the girls' names

the men's work

my children's toys

1. A simple apostrophe (') is used        with plural nouns ending in -s .

2. 's is used with plural nouns not       ending in -s .

COUNT AND NONCOUNT NOUNS

1. I bought a chair.

Tom bought three chairs.

2. We bought some furniture.

INCORRECT: We bought a furniture.

INCORRECT: We bought some furnitures.

Chair is a count noun; chairs are items that can be counted.

Furniture is a noncount noun.

In grammar, furniture cannot be counted.

Singular                                    Plural

COUNT

NOUN

a chair

one chair

chairs

two chairs

some chairs

a lot of chairs

many chairs

A count noun:

a) may be preceded by a/an in    the singular;

b) takes a final -s/-es in                  the plural.

NONCOUNT

NOUN

furniture

some furniture

a lot of

furniture

much furniture

¾

A noncount noun:

a) is not immediately  preceded  by a/an ;

b) has no plural form;

does not take a final  -s/-es.

SOME COMMON NONCOUNT NOUNS

1. Whole groups made up of similar items: baggage, clothing, equipment,      food, fruit, furniture, garbage, hardware, jewelry, junk, luggage, mail, machinery, make - up, money/cash/change, postage, scenery, traffic .

2. Fluids: water, coffee, tea, milk, oil, soup, gasoline, blood, etc .

3. Solids: ice, bread, butter, cheese, meat, gold , iron, silver, glass, paper,      wood, cotton, wool, etc .

4. Gases: steam, air, oxygen, nitrogen, smoke, smog, pollution, etc .

5. Particles: rice, chalk, corn, dirt, dust, flour, grass, hair, pepper, salt,       sand, sugar, wheat, etc .

6. Abstractions:

beauty, confidence, courage, education, enjoyment, fun, happiness,         health, help, honesty, hospitality, importance, intelligence, justice,           knowledge, laughter, luck, music, patience, peace, pride, progress,           recreation, significance, sleep, truth, violence, wealth, etc.

— advice, information, news, evidence, proof ;

— time, space, energy ;

ho mework, work ;

grammar, slang, vocabulary .

7. Languages: Arabic, Chinese, English, Spanish, etc.

8. Fields of study: economics, chemistry, engineering, history, literature,                     mathematics, psychology, etc.

9. Recreation: baseball, soccer, tennis, chess, bridge, poker, etc.

10. General activities: driving, studying, swimming, travelling, walking        (and other gerunds) .

11. Natural Phenomena: weather, dew, fog, hail, heat, humidity, gravity, rain,                 lightning, sleet, snow, thunder, wind, darkness, light, sunshine, electricity,

fire.

USING NOUNS AS MODIFIERS

1. The soup has vegetables in it.

It is vegetable soup .

2. The building has offices in it.

It is an office building .

When a noun is used as a modifier, it is in its singular form.

3. The test lasted two hours.

It was a two-hour test .

4. Her son is five years old.

She has a five-year-old son .

When a noun used as a modifier is combined with a number expression, the noun is singular and a hyphen (-) is used.

THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE

Use of a/an

Examples

1. Before a singular countable noun,    when it is mentioned for the first    time and represents no particular  person or thing:

I can see a book on the table.
They live in a flat.

He bought an ice-cream.

2. Before a singular countable noun    which is used as an example of
a class of things:

A child needs love =
All children need/Any child needs love.

3. With a noun complement. This       includes names of professions:

My friend is a manager.
She'll be a dancer.

4. With certain numbers.

Before half when half follows

a whole number.

But kg = half a kilo, though

a + half + noun is sometimes          possible.

With , , etc a is usual:

a dozen, a hundred, a million (but one dozen, one hundred, one million is also possible).

kilos = one and a half kilos or

a kilo and a half ;

a half-holiday, a half-portion,

a half-share ;

a third, a quarter etc., but one is also possible.

5. In expressions of price, speed,        ratio etc.:

5p a kilo, sixty kilometres an hour, four times a day; (Here a/an = per )

6. Before a singular countable noun    after the word what in                 exclamatory sentences and after     the words such, quite, rather :

Such a long queue! Such long queues!
What a pretty girl!
What pretty girls!
She is still quite a child.

It is rather a difficult problem.

7. With the nouns in the function of apposition.
But when the apposition refers to       a well-known person the is used:

The report was made by Petrenko,
a student of our University.

Jack London, the great American novelist, was born in San Francisco.

8. In a number of set expressions: a lot of, a great many, a great deal of,
a good deal of, a great number of, a good many, a couple, a little, a few,
at a speed of, at a time when, at a time, in time, on a large (small) scale, all of a sudden, by bus (train), to be in a hurry, to be in a position, to be at  a loss, it’s a pity, for a short (long) time, as a result of, as a matter
of fact, to have a good time, to have a mind, in a loud (low) voice,
to have
a look, to have a headache, to take a sit, to have a cold , to go for a walk .

THE DEFINITE ARTICLE

Use of « the»

Examples

1. Before a noun which has become     definite as a result of being             mentioned:

I saw a new film on TV yesterday.
The film wasn't very interesting.

2. Before a noun made definite by
the addition of a phrase or clause:

the girl in blue; the boy that I met;
the place where I met him.

3. When the object or group of                  objects is unique:

the earth, the sea, the sky, the moon, the sun, the world.

4. Before a noun which by reason of      locality can represent only one         particular thing:

Ann is in the garden .
(the garden of this house).
Please open the window .

5. Before superlatives and first,            second etc. used as adjectives or       pronouns, and only :

the first week; the best day; the only way.

6. Before a noun that represents
a class of animals or things:
But man , used to represent
the human race, has no article.

The cow is a domestic animal.
The pine is an evergreen tree.
If oil supplies run out, man have
to fall back on the horse.

7. The + adjective represents a class      of people:

the old = old people in general.
the rich = rich people in general.

8. Before certain proper names of          oceans, rivers, seas, gulfs, groups      of islands, chains of mountains,        plural names of countries, deserts,    and before certain other names:

The Atlantic, the Thames, the Alps,
the Black Sea, the Crimea, the City,
the United States of America,

the Sahara, the Persian Gulf.

9. Before the adjectives east/west etc. + noun in certain names:

the East/West End, the East/West Indies, the North/South Pole.

10.Before other proper names                 consisting of adjective + noun or      noun + of + noun:

The National Gallery, the Tower of London .

11.Before names of newspapers,            ships, orchesras, pop groups etc.

the Times, the Great Britain,
the Philadelphia Orchestra, the Beatles.

12. the + plural surname can be used      to mean «the ... family»:

the Smiths = Mr and Mrs Smith
(and children)
.

13. the + a singular countable noun (type of machine, invention, musical instruments).

The bicycle is an excellent means of transport. When was the telephone invented? The piano is my favourite instrument.

NO ARTICLE

Use s

Examples

1. Before plural nouns:

My friends are students.

2. Before abstract nouns except when    they are used in a particular sense:

Men fear death.
but: The death of the Prime Minister left his party without a leader.

3. After a noun in the possessive case, or a possessive adjective:

the boy's uncle = the uncle of the boy
It is my (blue) book = The (blue) book is mine.

4. Before names of meals:

The Scots have porridge for breakfast
but: The wedding breakfast was held in her father's house .

5. Before names of games:

He plays golf .

6. Before parts of the body and           articles of clothing, as these            normally prefer a possessive            adjective:

Raise your right hand.
He took off his coat.

7. When home is used alone, i.e. is       not preceded or followed by
a descriptive word or phrase:

He is at home. He went home.
I arrived home after dark.
I sent him home.

8. Before the nouns: bed, church,        court, hospital, prison,                 school/college/university , when    these places are visited or used        for their primary purpose.

We can be/get back from school/college/university .

We can leave school, leave             hospital , be released from prison .

But: When these places are visited or used for other reasons the is necessary:

We go: to bed to sleep; to church to pray; to court as litigants; to hospital as patients; to prison as prisoners;
to school/college/university to study;
similarly we can be: in bed , sleeping        or resting; at church as worshippers;
in hospital as patients; at school as
students.

Sometimes he goes to the prison
to give lectures.

9. work = place of work.

He is at work.
He's on his way to work.

10. We go to sea as sailors. To be at sea = to be on a voyage
(as passengers or crew). But to go to or be at the sea = to go to or
be at the seaside . We can also live by/near the sea .

PERSONAL PRONOUNS

The Nominative Case

The Objective Case

I — я

he — він

she — вона

it — воно (він, вона)

we — ми

you ви, ти

they — вони

me — мене, мені

him — його, йому

her — її, їй

it — його, йому, її, їй

us — нас, нам

you — вас, вам, тебе, тобі

them — їх, їм

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS

Conjoint Form

Absolute Form

my мій, моя, моє, мої

his — його ( чоловічий рід )

her її

its його( середній рід ), її

our наш, наша, наше, наші

your — ваш, ваша, ваше, ваші

твій, твоя, твоє, твої

their — їхній, їхня, їхнє, їхні

mine мій, моя, моє, мої

his — його ( чоловічий рід )

hers її

ours наш, наша, наше, наші

yours — ваш, ваша, ваше, ваші

твій, твоя, твоє, твої

theirs — їхній, їхня, їхнє, їхні

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS

Persons

Singular

Plural

1 st pers.
2 nd pers.
3 rd pers.

myself
yourself
himself, herself, itself

сам(а) себе

ourselves
yourselves
themselves

самі себе

1. He looked at himself in the mirror.

A reflexive pronoun usually refers to the subject of a sentence. He and himself refer to the same person.

2. He himself answered the phone,              not his secretary.

3. He answered the phone himself .

Sometimes reflexive pronouns are used for emphasis.

4. She lives by herself .

The expression by + a reflexive pronoun usually means «alone».

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS

Sentences

-thing

-body, -one

-where

Affirmative

some

any

something

що-небудь

anything

усе, що завгодно

somebody

someone

хтось

хто-небудь

anybody/anyone

усякий

будь-який

somewhere

anywhere

десь

де-небудь

anywhere

де завгодно

куди завгодно

Interrogative

any

anything

що-небудь

anybody

anyone

хто-небудь

будь-хто

anywhere

де-небудь

куди-небудь

Negative

not ...

any

no

not...

anything

нічого

nothing

нічого

not ... anybody

not ... anyone

ніхто

nobody/no one

none

ніхто

not ... anywhere

ніде, нікуди

nowhere

ніде, нікуди

Affirmative

Interrogative

Negative

every

everything

усе

everybody

everyone

усякий, кожний, усе

everywhere

скрізь, усюди

QUANTITIVE PRONOUNS

few

little

мало, мало хто

недостатньо

Few birds can be seen in that place. (= almost none )

I know little about painting.

(= almost nothing )

Few and little have

a negative meaning. They mean not enough .

a few

кілька

a little

трохи

A few birds can be seen in that place. (= some birds )

I know a little about painting.
(= something )

A few , a little have

a positive meaning. They mean some though not much (many)

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS

Singular

Plural

this — цей, ця, це

that той, та, те

these — ці

those — ті

DEGREES OF COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS

Adjectives
and Adverbs

Positive

Comparative

Superlative

Formation

One-syllable adjectives

and adverbs

old

wise

hot

easy

fast

early

older, elder  wiser

hotter

easier

faster

earlier

oldest, eldest

wisest

hottest

easiest

fastest

earliest

For most

one-syllable adjectives and adverbs, -er and         -est are added.

Two-syllable adjectives and adverbs

famous

slowly

more famous

more slowly

most famous

most slowly

For most two- syllable adj. and adv., more and most are used.

busy

pretty

busier

prettier

busiest

prettiest

-Er / -est are used with two-syllable adjectives that end in -y . The -y is changed to -i .

clever

gentle

friendly

cleverer

more clever

gentler

more gentle

friendlier

more friendly

cleverest

most clever

gentlest

most gentle

friendliest

most friendly

Some two-syllable adjectives use            -er / -est or more / most: able , pleasant, angry,

handsome,simple, common, quiet,

narrow, sour, polite, cruel.

Adjectives and adverbs with three

or more

syllables

important

productive

carefully

more important

more productive

more

carefully

most

important

most productive

most

carefully

More and most are used with long adjectives and adverbs.

Irregular Adjectives and Adverbs

good/well

bad/badly

far

much/many

little

better

worse

farther/further

more

less

best

worst

farthest/furthest

most

least

Numerals

Cardinal Numerals (how many?)

Ordinal Numerals (Which?)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

1,000          1,000,000

one

two

three

four

five

six

seven

eight

nine

ten

eleven

twelve

thirteen

fourteen

fifteen

sixteen

seventeen

eighteen

nineteen

twenty

twenty-one

twenty-two

twenty-three

twenty-four

twenty-five

twenty-six

twenty-seven

twenty-eight

twenty-nine

thirty

forty

fifty

sixty

seventy

eighty

ninety

a hundred

a thousand

a million

first

second

third

fourth

fifth

sixth

seventh

eighth

ninth

tenth

eleventh

twelfth

thirteenth

fourteenth

fifteenth

sixteenth

seventeenth

eighteenth

nineteenth

twentieth

twenty-first

twenty-second

twenty-third

twenty-fourth

twenty-fifth

twenty-sixth

twenty-seventh

twenty-eighth

twenty-ninth

thirtieth

fortieth

fiftieth

sixtieth

seventieth

eightieth

ninetieth

hundredth

thousandth

millionth

140

400

1,006

5,000

260,127

a/one hundred and forty

four hundred

a/one thousand and six

five thousand

two hundred and sixty thousand, one hundred and twenty-seven

Dates

March 10, 1998 ¾ the tenth of March nineteen ninety-eight or
March the tenth nineteen ninety-eight

Fractional Numerals

Common Fractions :   ¾  a half;           ¾ a quarter;

¾  a/one fifth;    ¾ three fifths;

¾  one and a half;

¾  three and four fifths;

Decimal Fractions :    0.1  ¾  nought point one;

10.92 ¾  ten point nine two;

8.04 ¾  eight point nought four;

Percentage

a kind of decimal fraction, denominator of which is always 100:  2 % ¾  2 per cent ¾ 2 p.c. ¾ two per cent.

Roman

Numerals

1 ¾ I

2 ¾ II

3 ¾ III

4 ¾ IV

5  ¾   V

6  ¾   VI

7  ¾   VII

8  ¾   VIII

9  ¾   IX

10 ¾    X

11   ¾  XI

12   ¾  XII

13   ¾  XIII

14   ¾  XIV

15   ¾  XV

16   ¾  XVI

17   ¾  XVII

18   ¾  XVIII

19   ¾  XIX

20   ¾  XX

21   ¾  XXI

30   ¾  XXX

40   ¾  XL

50   ¾  L

60   ¾  LX

70   ¾  LXX

80   ¾  LXXX

90   ¾  XC

100   ¾  C

1000   ¾  M

NUMBERS IN MEASUREMENT

Weight

Measure

Міри ваги

1 dram

1 ounce

1 pound

1 stone

1 quarter

1 hundredweight

1 ton

драхма

унція

фунт

стон

квартер

хандредвейт

тонна

dr

oz   (16 dr)

lb    (16 oz)

st    (14 lb)

gr    (28 lb)

hwt (112 lb)

tn    (20 hwt)

1.77 g

28.35 g

453.59 g

6.35 kg

12.7 kg

50.8 kg

1016 kg

Linear Measure

Лінійні міри

1 inch

1 foot

1 yard

1 mile

1 International

Nautical Mile

дюйм

фут

ярд

миля

миля морська

in

ft  (12 in)

yd (3 ft)

ml (1760 yd)


INM (6076 ft)

2.54 cm

30.48 cm

91.44 cm

1609.33 m


1.852 km

Dry Measure

Міри сипких речовин

1 gill

1 pint

1 quart

1 gallon

1 bushel

1 quarter

джил

пінта

кварта

галон

бушель

квартер

gi

pt (4 gills)

qt (2pt)

gal (4qt)

bu

qr (8 bu)

0.14 l

0.57 l

1.14 l

4.55 l

36.35 l

290.94 l

Square Measure

Міри площини

1 square inch

1 square foot

1 square yard

1 acre

1 square mile

кв. дюйм

кв. фут

кв. ярд

акр

кв. миля

sq in

sq ft (144 sq in)

sq yd (9 sq ft)

ac (4.8 sq yd)

sq ml (640 ac)

6.45 cm 2

9.29 dm 2

0.836 m 2

0.4 hectare

2.59 km 2

Cubic Measure

Міри об єму

1 cubic inch

1 cubic foot

1 cubic yard

1 register ton

куб. дюйм

куб. фут

куб. ярд

тонна

реєстрова

cu in

cu ft (1728

cu in)

cu yd (27 cu ft)


reg t (100 cu ft)

16.39 cm 3

28.32 cm 3

764.53 cm 3


2.83 m 3

Time Measure

Міри часу

1 minute

1 hour

1 day

1 week

хвилина

година

день

тиждень

60 seconds

60 minutes

24 hours

7 days

Angles Measure

Міри кута

1 minute

1 degree (1)

1 right angle

1 circle

хвилина

градус

прямий кут

розгорнений

кут

60 seconds (60¢¢)

60 minutes (60¢)

90 degrees (90°)

360 degrees (360°)

4 right angles

ОСОБОВІ ФОРМИ ДІЄСЛОВА

FINITE FORMS OF THE VERB

Дійсний спосіб
The Indicative Mood

Активний стан
Active Voice
to ask

Пасивний стан
Passive Voice
to be asked

Неозначені часи
Indefinite Tenses

to ask

Доконані часи
Perfect Tenses

to have asked

to be asked

to have been asked

Present

Past

Future

Present

Past

Future

ask

asks

asked

shall

ask

will

have

asked

has

had asked

shall

have

will  asked

am

is   asked

are

was

asked

were

shall

be

will  asked

have

been

has  asked

had  been

asked

shall  have

been

will  asked

Тривалі часи

Continuous Tenses

to be asking

Перфектно-тривалі часи

Perfect Continuous Tenses

to have been asking

to be being asked

Present

Past

Future

Present

Past

Future

am

is  asking

are

was

asking

were

shall      be            asking

will

have

been

has  asking

had   been

asking

shall  have

been

will asking

am

is  being

are asked

was

being

asked

were

INDEFINITE TENSES

(to work, to write)

Present Indefinite

work (s), write (s)

Affirmative

Interrogative

Negative

Interrogative-

Negative

I work , write

He/she works , writes

We/you/they work , write

Do I work , write ?

Does he/she work , write ?

Do we/you/

they work , write ?

I do not work , write

He/she does not work , write

We/you/they do not work , write

Do I not work ,

write ?

Does he/she not work , write ?

Do we/you/they not work , write ?

Past Indefinite

worked, wrote

Affirmative

Interrogative

Negative

Interrogative-

Negative

I worked , wrote

He/she worked , wrote

We/you/they worked , wrote

Did I work, write ?

Did he/she work , write ?

Did we/you/

they work , write ?

I did not work ,

write

He/she did not work , write

We/you/they/

did not work , write

Did I not work ,

write ?

Did he/she not work , write ?

Did we/you/they not work , write ?

Future Indefinite

shall/will + work, write

Affirmative

Interrogative

Negative

Interrogative-

Negative

I/we shall work , write

He/she/you/

they will work , write

Shall I/we work , write ?

Will he/she/

you/they work , write ?

I/we shall not work , write

He/she/you/

they will not work , write

Shall I/we not work , write ?

Will he/she/

you/they not work , write ?

CONTINUOUS TENSES

(to work, to write)

Present Continuous

am, is, are + working, writing

Affirmative

Interrogative

Negative

Interrogative-

Negative

I am working ,

writing

He/she is

working , writing

We/you/they are working , writing

Am I working ,

writing ?

Is he/she working ,

writing ?

Are we/you/

they working , writing ?

I am not working ,

writing

He/she is not

working , writing

We/you/they are not working , writing

Am I not working ,

writing ?

Is he/she not

working , writing ?

Are we/you/they not working , writing ?

Past Continuous

was, were + working, writing

Affirmative

Interrogative

Negative

Interrogative-

Negative

I/he/she was working , writing

We/you/they were working , writing

Was I/he/she working , writing ?

Were we/you/

they working , writing ?

I/he/she was not working , writing

We/you/they/

were not working , writing

Was I/he/she not working , writing ?

Were we/you/

they not working , writing ?

Future Continuous

shall/will + be working, writing

Affirmative

Interrogative

Negative

Interrogative-

Negative

I/we shall be working , writing

He/she/you/

they will be working , writing

Shall I/we be working , writing ?

Will he/she/

you/they be working , writing ?

I/we shall not be working , writing

He/she/you/

they will not be working , writing

Shall I/we not be working , writing ?

Will he/she/

you/they not be working , writing ?

PERFECT TENSES

(to work, to write)

Present Perfect

have, has + worked, written

Affirmative

Interrogative

Negative

Interrogative-

Negative

I/we/you/they

have worked , written

He/she has

worked , written

Have I/we/

you/they worked , written ?

Has he/she worked , written ?

I/we/you/they have not worked , written

He/she has not worked , written

Have I/we/

you/they not worked , written ?

Has he/she not worked , written ?

Past Perfect

had+ worked, written

Affirmative

Interrogative

Negative

Interrogative-

Negative

I/he/she/we/

you/they had worked , written

Had I/he/she /

we/you/they  worked , written ?

I/he/she/we/

you/they had not worked , written

Had I/he/she/

we/you/they  not worked , written ?

Future Perfect

shall/will have + worked, written

Affirmative

Interrogative

Negative

Interrogative-

Negative

I/ We shall have worked , written

He/she/you/

they will have worked , written

Shall I/we have worked , written ?

Will he/she/

you/they have worked , written ?

I/ We shall not have worked ,

written

He/she/you/

they will not have worked , written

Shall I/we not have worked , written ?

Will he/she/

you/they not

have worked , written

PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSES

(to work, to write)

Present Perfect Continuous

have, has + been + working, writing

Affirmative

Interrogative

Negative

Interrogative-

Negative

I/we/you/they have been working, writing

He/she has been working, writing

Have I/we/

you/they been working, writing ?

Has he/she been working, writing ?

I/we/you/they have not been working, writing

He/she has not  been working, writing ?

Have I/we/

you/ they not been  working, writing ?

Has he/she not been working, writing ?

Past Perfect Continuous

had + been + working, writing

Affirmative

Interrogative

Negative

Interrogative-

Negative

I/he/she/we/

you/they had been working, writing

Had I/he/she/

we/you/they been working, writing ?

I/he/she/we/

you/they had not been working, writing

Had I/he/she/

we/you/they not been  working, writing ?

Future Perfect Continuous

shall/will + have been working, writing

Affirmative

Interrogative

Negative

Interrogative-

Negative

I/we shall have been working, writing

He/she/you/

they will have been working, writing

Shall I/we have been working, writing ?

Will he/she/

you/they have been working, writing ?

I/we shall not have been working, writing

He/she/you/

they will not have been working, writing

Shall I/we not have been working, writing ?

Will he/she/

you/they not have been working, writing ?

THE FUNCTIONS OF THE VERB « TO BE»

Functions

Examples

1. The Notional Verb

He is at home now.
The students are in the classroom.

2. An Auxiliary Verb

He is writing a letter.
I was asked a difficult question.

3. A Link Verb

Jhon is a student. He is intelligent.
He is the best student in our group.

4. A Modal Verb

We are to meet at noon.
They are to begin this work at once.

THE FUNCTIONS OF THE VERB « TO HAVE»

Functions

Examples

1. The Notional Verb

She has a large family.
We have got a comfortable flat.

2. An Auxiliary Verb

He has graduated from the University.
I have been waiting for you for half an hour.

3. A Modal Verb

I have to get up early on Mondays.
They had to go there. He will have to do it.

THE FUNCTIONS OF THE VERB « TO DO »

Functions

Examples

1. The Notional Verb

The exercise was done well.
You didn't do anything to help her.

2. An Auxiliary Verb

a) The Present and Past Indefinite      (interrogative and negative forms)

b) The Imperative Mood                 (negative form)

c) to express emphasis

He doesn't work here.

Did you see him yesterday?                — Yes, I did.

Don't be late for the lessons.

But I do know him.

General Questions

Predicate or auxiliary verb

Sub-

ject

Part of

the Predicate

Object

Adverbial Modifiers

Short Answers

Affirmative

Negative

Is

Do

Does

Did

Will

Are

Was

Can

he

you

she

it

he

you

Ann

you

take

live

rain

be living?

studying?

swim?

books

French?

at home?

here?

in Kyiv?

last night?

there?

in class?

Yes, he is.

Yes, I do.

Yes,she does

Yes, it did.

Yes, he will.

Yes, I am.

Yes, she was.

Yes, I can.

No, he isn't.

No, I don't.

No, she doesn't.

No, it didn't.

No, he won't.

No, I'm not.

No, she wasn't.

No, I can't.

Tag questionS

Jack can come, can't he ?

Fred can't come, can he ?

A tag question is a question added at the end of

a sentence. Speakers use tag questions chiefly to make sure their information is correct or to seek agreement.

Affirmative Sentence + Negative tag  =  Affirmative answer expected

Mary is here, isn't she?                                            Yes, she is.

You like tea, don't you?                                           Yes, I do.

They have left , haven't they?                                   Yes, they have.

Negative Sentence + Affirmative tag = Negative answer expected

Mary isn't here, is she?                                            No, she isn't.

You don't like tea, do you?                                      No, I don't.

They haven't left , have they?                                   No, they haven't.

This/That is your book, isn't it ?

These/Those are yours, aren't they ?

The tag pronoun for this/that = it

The tag pronoun for these/those = they

There is a meeting tonight, isn't there ?

In sentences with there + be , there is used in the tag.

Everything is okay, isn't it ?

Everyone took the test, didn't they ?

Personal pronouns are used to refer to indefinite pronouns. They is usually used in a tag to refer to everyone , someone , everybody , somebody , no one , nobody .

Nothing is wrong, is it?

Nobody called on the phone, did they?

You' ve never been there, have you?

Sentences with negative words take affirmative tags.

I am supposed to be here, am I not ?

I am supposed to be here, aren't I ?

am I not ? is formal English.

aren't I ? is common in spoken English.

Question words

When

When did they arrive?

When will you come?

Yesterday.

Next Monday.

When is used to ask questions about time .

Where

Where is she?

Where can I find a pen?

At home.

In that drawer.

Where is used to ask questions about  place .

Why

Why did he leave early?

Why aren't you coming with us?

Because he's ill.

I'm tired.

Why is used to ask questions about reason .

How

How did you come to school?

How does he drive?

By bus.

Carefully.

How generally asks about manner .

How much money does it cost?

How many people came?

Ten dollars.

Fifteen.

How is used with much and many .

How old are you?

How cold is it?

How soon can you get there?

How fast were you driving?

How long has he been here?

How often do you write home?

How far is it to Paris from here?

Eighteen.

Ten below zero.

In ten minutes.

50 miles an hour.

Two years.

Every week.

500 miles.

How is also used with adjectives adverbs . and

How long asks about length of time .

How often asks about frequency .

How far asks about distance .

More questions with How

Question

Answer

a) How do you spell «coming»? c-o-m-i-n-g.

b) How do you say «yes» in Japanese? Hai.

c) How do you say/pronounce this word?

To answer  a): Spell the word.

To answer  b): Say the word.

To answer  c):  Pronounce            the word.

d)   How are getting along? Great.

e)   How are you doing? Fine.

f)   How's it going? Okay.

So-so.

In d), e), and f): How is your life?

Is your life okay? Do you have any problems?

NOTE: f) is often used in greetings:

Hi, Bob. How's it going?

g)   How do you feel? Terrific!

How are you feeling? Wonderful!

Great!

Fine.

Okay.

So-so.

A bit under

the weather.

Not so good.

Terrible!

Awful!

The questions in g) ask about health or about general
emotional state.

h) How do you do? How do you do?

How do you do? is used by both speakers when they are introduced to each other in            a somewhat formal situation.

Who

Who can answer that question?

Who came to visit you?

I can.

Jane and Tom.

Who is used as the subject of  a question.

It refers to people.

Who is coming to dinner tonight?

Who wants to come with me?

Ann and Tom.

We do.

Who is usually followed by

a singular verb even if

the speaker is asking about more than one person.

Whose

Whose book did you borrow?

Whose key is this? ( Whose is this?)

David's.

It's mine.

Whose ask questions about possession .

What

What made you angry?

What went wrong?

His rudeness.

Everything.

What is used as the subject of

a question.

It refers to «things».

What do you need?

What did Alice buy?

What did he talk about ?

About what did he talk? ( formal )

I need a pencil.

A book.

His vacation.

What is also used as an object.

What kind of soup is that?

What kind of shoes did he buy?

It's bean soup.

Sandals.

What kind of asks about particular variety or type of something.

What did you do last night?

What is Mary doing ?

I studied.

She is reading          a book.

What + a form of do is used to ask questions about activities.

What countries did you visit?

What time did she come?

What colour is his hair?

Italy and Spain.

Seven o'clock.

Dark brown.

What may accompany a noun.

What is Tom like ?

What is the weather like ?

He's kind and friendly.

Hot and humid.

What + be like asks for

a general description of qualities.

What does Tom look like ?

What does her house look like ?

He is tall and has dark hair.

It's a large, red brick house.

What + look like asks for

a physical description.

Which

I have two pens.

Which pen do you want?

Which one do you want?

Which do you want?

Which book should I buy?

The blue one.

That one.

Which is used instead of what when a question concerns choosing from a definite, known quantity or group.

Which countries did he visit? What countries did he visit? Which class are you in?

What class are you in?

Paris and Canada.

This class.

In some cases, there is little difference in meaning between which and what when they accompany a noun.

SUMMARY CHART OF VERB TENSES

Active Voice

Indefinite

Continuous

Perfect

Perfect  Continuous

Present

I write letters every week.

I am writing

a letter now.

I have written

a letter today.

I have been writing for          an hour.

Past

I wrote this letter yesterday.

I was writing

a letter at

5 o'clock.

I had written all my letters         by 9 o'clock.

I had been writing for          an hour when you came.

Future

I shall write this letter tomorrow.

I shall be writing a letter at 5 o'clock tomorrow.

I shall have written all my letters by 9 clock tomorrow.

If you come at
7 I shall have been writing for an hour by that time.

Passive Voice

Indefinite

Continuous

Perfect

Perfect  Continuous

Present

These letters are written (by me) every week.

A letter is being written (by me) now.

The letter has been written (by me) today.

¾

Past

This letter was written yesterday.

This letter was being written at 5 o'clock.

By 9 o'clock all my letters had been written .

¾

Future

This letter will be written tomorrow.

¾

All my letters will have been written by
7 o'clock tomorrow.

¾

Passive Voice

Present

1. Викладач пояснює новий

матеріал.

на кожному

уроці

1. The teacher explains new

material at every lesson.

2. Новий матеріал                     пояснюється викладачем.

на кожному

уроці

2. New material is explained

by the teacher at every              lesson.

3. Викладач пояснює новий    матеріал.

зараз

3. The teacher is explaining new material now.

4. Новий матеріал пояснюється викладачем.

зараз

4. New material is being          explained by the teacher now.

5. Викладач пояснив новий         матеріал.

на цьому тижні

5. The teacher has explained new material this week.

6. Новий матеріал був       пояснений викладачем.

на цьому тижні

6. New material has been          explained by the teacher       this week.

7. Викладач пояснює новий        матеріал.

уже 10 хв.

з 9 год. ранку

7. The teacher has been            explaining new material for    10 minutes since 9 o'clock     in the morning.

8. Новий матеріал              пояснюється викладачем.

уже 10 хв.

з 9 год. ранку

8. New material has been explained by the teacher       for 10 minutes since

9 o'clock in the morning.

Past

1. Викладач пояснив новий         матеріал.

учора

1. The teacher explained new    material yesterday.

2. Новий матеріал був               пояснений викладачем.

учора

2. New material was explained by the teacher yesterday.

3. Викладач пояснював новий     матеріал.

учора

о 10 годині

3. The teacher was explaining new material yesterday at         10 o'clock.

4. Новий матеріал

пояснювався викладачем.

учора

о 10 годині

4. New material was being        explained by the teacher       yesterday at 10 o'clock.

Future

1. Викладач пояснить новий матеріал.

завтра

1. The teacher will explain new          material tomorrow.

2. Новий матеріал         буде пояснений викладачем.

завтра

2. New material will be explained
by the teacher tomorrow.

3. Викладач пояснить новий матеріал.

завтра             до кінця першого уроку

3. The teacher will have explained
the end of the first lesson.
new material tomorrow by

4. Новий матеріал          буде     пояснений викладачем.

завтра             до кінця першого уроку

4. New material will have been         explained by the teacher          tomorrow by the end of the first    lesson.

MODAL VERBS

Can; could; to be able to

Uses

Present/Future

Past

1) ability;

capability

I can run fast.

I can help you.

I am able to help you.

I will be able to help you.

I could run fast when I was a child, but now I can't.

I was able to help you.

2) informal

permission

You can use my car tomorrow.

3) polite request

Can I borrow your pen?  Could borrow your pen? I

Could you help me?

4) impossibility

(negative only)

That can't be true!

That couldn't be true!

That can't have been true!

That couldn't have been true!

5) suggestion

— I need help in math.

You could talk to your teacher.

You could have talked to your teacher.

6) less than
50% certainty

— Where is John?

He could be at home.

He could have been at home.

7) doubt; 
astonishment
(interrogative)

Can she know Japanese?

Can he have done it?

May; might

Uses

Present/Future

Past

1) polite request

May I borrow your pen?          Might I borrow your pen?

2) formal              permission

You may leave the room.

¾

3) less than             50% certainty

— Where is John?
He may be at the library.
He might be at the library.

He may have been at  the library.
He might have been at  the library.

Must; be to; have to; have got to

Uses

Present/Future

Past

1) duty; obligation; strong necessity

I must go to class today.
I have to go to class today.
I have got to go to class today.

I had to go to class yesterday.

2) lack of necessity (negative)

I don't have to go to class today.

I didn't have to go
to class yesterday.

3) prohibition      (negative)

You must not open that door.

¾

4) 90% certainty

Mary isn't in class. She must be sick. (present only)

Mary must have been sick yesterday.

5) plan;              agreement

We are to meet at nine.

We were to meet at nine.

6) order;     instruction

You must go there at once.
You are to go there at once.

¾

7) destiny
(past only)

¾

He was never to see his wife again.

Should; ought to

Uses

Present/Future

Past

1) advisability;
desirability

I should study tonight.
I ought to study tonight.

I should have studied last night.
I ought to have studied last
night.

2) 90% certainty

She should do well on
the test.
She ought to do well on the test. (future only)

She should have done well on     the test.
She ought to have done well on the test.

Shall

Uses

Present/Future

Past

1) polite question
to make a suggestion

Shall I open the window?

¾

2) future with «I» or 
«we» as subject

I shall arrive at nine.
( will = more common )

¾

Will; would

Uses

Present/Future

Past

1) 100 % certainty

He will be here at nine.

He said he would be here at nine.

2) polite request

Will you please pass the salt?

Would you please pass

the salt?

Would you mind if I left early?

¾

3) willingness

— The phone's ringing.

I' ll get it.

¾

4) preference

I would rather go to the park than   stay home.

I would rather have gone to the park.

INDEFINITE PRONOUN «ONE»

Examples

Functions

One should always be polite.
How does one get to 5 th Avenue from here?
One must keep one’s word.

one means any person, people in general.
The subject of an impersonal sentence. ( usually not translated )

This book is more interesting than the one we read last week.
Here are two books. Which one would you like?

Any function for replacing          a noun already mentioned.

One should take care of one’s health.
One should take care of his health.
One should take care of his or her health.

Notice the pronouns that may be used in the same sentence to refer back to one .

The PRONOUNs «both, either and neither»

Examples

Functions

Both these children are mine.

These children are both mine.

Both my children are boys.

They both accepted the invitation.

You are both right.

They have both been invited.

We must both go there.

Both is plural in meaning and applied only to two persons or things.

a) Take either book. I don’t mind which.

The news didn’t shock either of them.

Have you seen either of your parents

today?

b) You may go by either road.

The houses on either side were tall and

big.

Either refers to two persons or things and has two meanings.

a) one or the other of two;

b)    each of two; both.

Neither brother has been abroad.

We accepted neither offer.

Neither of the statements is true.

Neither means not the one nor            the other.

Sequence of Tenses
Direct and Indirect Speech

If the main verb of the sentence is in        the present, no change is made in the verb tense or modal in the object clause.

If the main verb of the sentence is in the past, the verb in the object clause is usually also in a past form.

He sais (that) he works hard.

He said (that) he worked hard.

He sais (that) he is working hard.

He said (that) he was working hard.

If the action of the object clause is simultaneous with that of the principal clause, the Past Indefinite or the Past Continuous is used in the object clause no matter which Past tense-aspect form is found in the principal clause.

He sais (that) he worked hard.

He said (that) he had worked hard.

He sais (that) he was working hard.

He said (that) he had been working hard.

He sais (that) she has already left .

He said (that) she had already left .

If the action of the object clause precedes that of the principal clause, the Past Perfect or the Past Perfect Continuous is used in the object clause no matter which Past tense-aspect form is found in the principal clause.

He sais (that) he will work hard.

He said (that) he would work hard.

He sais (that) he will have finished
the work by September.

He said (that) he would have finished the work by September.

He sais (that) he will be working hard
all day long.

He said (that) he would be working hard all day long.

If the action of the object clause follows that of the principal clause, the Future-
in-the-Past
or one of the other means of expressing future actions viewed from the past is used in the object clause no matter which Past tense-aspect form is found
in the principal clause.

He sais (that) he is going to work hard.

He said (that) he was going to work hard.

He sais (that) he can work hard.

He said (that) he could work hard.

He sais (that) he may work hard.

He said (that) he might work hard.

He sais (that) he has to work hard.

He said (that) he had to work hard.

He sais (that) he must  work hard.

He said (that) he had to work hard.

He sais (that) he should work hard.

He said (that) he should work hard.

He sais (that) he ought to work hard.

He said (that) he ought to work hard.

The rules of sequence of  tenses cannot be observed with certain modal verbs which have only one form. ( must, should, ought and need )


THE Infinitive

Infinitive

Active voice

Passive voice

Uses

Indefinite

to write

to come

to be written

the action is simultaneous with that expressed by the finite verb.

He wants to write her about it.
He wants to be written about it.

Continuous

to be writing

to be coming

the action is temporary and not        a usual one.

He may be writing a new novel.

Perfect

to have written

to have come

to have been written

the action precedes

that of the predicate.

I am glad to have written her about it.
I was surprised to have been written about it.

Perfect Continuous

to have been writing

to have been coming

the action began before the time indicated by

the predicate and        is still going on.

He is said to have been writing this novel for 2 years already.

Functions

Examples

Subject

To know him is to trust him.

It is difficult to translate this text.

Predicative

Our aim is to master English.

What I want is to be left alone.

Part of a Compound Verbal Predicate

We must stay at home.

We decided to work together.

Object

He asked me to wait .

He promised to come in time.

Attribute

He is always the first to come .

The article to be translated is on the table.

Adverbial Modifier

I have come here to help you.

The problem is too complicated to be solved at once.

REFERENCE LIST OF VERBS FOLLOWED BY INFINITIVES

A. VERBS FOLLOWED IMMEDIATELY BY AN INFINITIVE

1. afford

2. agree

3. appear

4. arrange

5. ask

6. beg

7. care

8. claim

9. consent

10. decide

11. demand

12. deserve

13. expect

14. fail

15. forget

16. hesitate

17. hope

18. learn

19. manage

20. mean

21. need

22. offer

23. plan

24. prepare

25. pretend

26. promise

27. refuse

28. regret

29. remember

30. seem

31. struggle

32. swear

33. threaten

34. volunteer

35. wait

36. want

37. wish

I can’t afford to buy it .

They agreed to help us.

She appears to be tired.

I’ll arrange to meet you at the airport.

He asked to come with us.

He begged to come with us.

I don’t care to see that show.

She claims to know a famous movie star.

She finally consented to marry him.

I have decided to leave on Monday.

I demand to know who is responsible.

She deserves to win the prize.

I expect to enter graduate school next year.

She failed to return the book to the library in time.         I forgot to mail the letter.

Don’t hesitate to ask for my help.

Jack hopes to arrive next week.

He learnt/learned to play the piano.

She managed to finish her work early.

I didn’t mean to hurt your feelings.

I need to have your opinion.

They offered to help us.

I am planning to have a party.

We prepared to welcome them.

He pretends not to understand .

I promise not to be late.

I refuse to believe his story.

I regret to tell you that you failed.

I remembered to lock the door.

That cat seems to be friendly.

I struggled to stay awake.

She swore to tell the truth.

She threatened to tell my parents.

He volunteered to help us.

I will wait to hear from you.

I want to tell you something.

She wishes to come with us.

B. VERBS FOLLOWED BY A (PRO)NOUN + AN INFINITIVE

1. advise

2. allow

3. ask

4. beg

5. cause

6. challenge

7. convince

8. dare

9. encourage

10. expect

11. forbid

12. force

13. hire

14. instruct

15. invite

16. need

17. order

18. permit

19. persuade

20. remind

21. require

22. teach

23. tell

24. urge

25. want

26. warn

She advised me to wait until tomorrow.

She allowed me to use her car.

I asked John to help us.

They begged us to come .

Her laziness caused her to fail .

She challenged me to race her to the corner.

I couldn’t convince him to accept our help.

He dared me to do better than he had done.

He encouraged me to try again.

I expect you to be in time.

I forbid you to tell him.

They forced him to tell the truth.

She hired a boy to mow the lawn.

He instructed them to be careful .

Harry invited the Johnsons to come to his party.

We needed Chris to help us figure out the solution.

The judge ordered me to pay a fine.

He permitted the children to stay up late.

I persuaded him to come for a visit.

She reminded me to lock the door.

Our teacher requires us to be in time.

My brother taught me to swim .

The doctor told me to take these pills.

I urged her to apply for the job.

I want you to be happy.

I warned you not to drive too fast.

The Prepositional Infinitive Complex

Subject

It is easy for you to say that.

For him to help his friends is quite natural.

Predicative

The question is for you to decide .

The best thing is for you to move to the South.

Object

I waited for him to speak .

Attribute

This is the book for you to read .

Adverbial modifier of purpose

He opened the doors of the car for us to get in .

I’ve brought two books for my son to read .

Adverbial modifier of result

The weather was too cold for the children to go out .

It was too dark for her to see him.

THE Objective Infinitive complex

is used after

the verbs

denoting

a) perceptions

of senses*:

to see

to hear

to feel

to watch

to observe

to notice

I saw him get off the bus.

Did you hear her sing ?

She felt her voice tremble .

I watch her enter the shop.

We observe the direction constantly change .

Nobody noticed him come in.

b) wish,   
intention,
emotions:

to want

to wish

to like

to dis like

to hate

to intend should/would like

I want you to help me.

He wishes the work to be done at once.

He likes dinner to be in time.                         I dislike you to say such words.

I hate you to talk like that.

He intended me to go with him.

I should like you to stay here.

c) mental

activity:

to consider

to believe

to think

to find

to know

to expect to suppose

I consider him to be right.

I believe her to be a good teacher.

We thought him to be sleeping .

We find this value to be accurate enough.

I know him to have said that.

We expected her to return .

I suppose him to be about fifty.

d) order,

request,

permission,

advice,
compulsion:

to order

to ask

to request

to allow

to advise

to recommend

to cause

to force

get

to make *

to let *

He ordered the children to stop talking.

I asked Tom to help me.

He requested the matter to be kept secret.

She doesn’t allow anyone to smoke .

She advised me to tell the police about it.

I wouldn’t recommend you to stay here.

Her laziness caused her to fail .

He forced me to go there.

I got him to repair my car.

What make s you think so?

Let me go .

*The verbs to make, to let and the verbs of physical perception are followed by the infinitive without «to» .

The Subjective Infinitive complex

is used with

a) the verbs

of speech:

to say

to report

to inform

She is said to write a new novel.

They are reported to have left London.

He was informed to have arrived in Kyiv.

verbs denoting :   b) mental

activity:

to consider

to believe

to think

to find

to know

to expect

to suppose

He is considered to be a good speaker.

He is believed to know English.

He was thought to have gone .

They are found to be unfit for service.

History is known to repeat itself.

She is expected to come any minute.

He is supposed to know these things.

c) perceptions

of senses

to see

to hear

to feel

to watch

to observe

to notice

He was seen to cross the street.

She was heard to mention your name.

She was felt to be suffering .

He was watched to dance in the hall.

The woman was observed to follow him.

He was noticed to unlock the door.

d) order,

request,

permission,

advice,

compulsion:

to order

to ask

to allow

to advise

to force

to make

They were ordered to go to bed .

She was asked to come on Monday.

I wasn’t allowed to watch the film.

We were advised not to drink the water.

He was forced to give up this work.

He was made to repeat the rule.

e) with

the verbs

to seem

to appear

to happen

to chance

to prove

to turn out

The child seems to be  asleep .

He appears to know a lot of things.

I happened to see him yesterday.

He chanced to have recognized me.

Your advice proved to be very useful.

He turned out to be a good friend.

f) with

the expressions:

to be likely

to be unlikely

to be sure

to be certain

They are likely to come here.

He is unlikely to come tomorrow.

He is sure to go hunting .

He is sure to ring you up .

The  Participle

Form

Transitive verbs

Intransitive verbs

Active voice

Passive voice

Active voice

Participle I
(Present Participle)


writing


being written


going

Participle II
(Past Participle)


¾


written


gone

Perfect Participle

having written

having been written

having gone

Seeing that I was late I hurried.
Be careful while crossing the street.
Being left alone I went on with my work.
She tried to calm the crying child.
Not knowing what to say he kept silent.

Participle I ( Active and Passive )
denotes an action simultaneous with the action expressed by           the finite verb.

Having written the letter he went to post it.
Having finished their classes the students went home.

Perfect Participle ( Active and Passive ) denotes an action prior to that of the finite verb.

Being asked for her opinion she blushed.
Having been shown the wrong direction he lost his way.

Perfect and Non-Perfect Participle ( Passive ) denotes          a passive action.

Complexes with the Participle
THE Objective Participle complex

is used with

the verbs

denoting

a) sense

perceptions:

to see

to hear

to feel

to watch

to observe

to notice

I saw her walking along the street.

We heard him speaking in the next room.

She felt her hand trembling .

I watched the children playing in the garden. The teacher observed the students writing compositions.

b) wish and

mental

activity:

to want

to wish

to find

to leave

I want the letter posted at once.

I wish your dreams realized .

When I returned I found her gone .

He left his work unfinished .

to have

to get

She had her dress made here.

I must have my hair cut .

He will have his coat cleaned .

She must have her hair done .

Have you got your car repaired ?

After these verbs only Past Participle is used. It denotes an action performed by someone else for the benefit of the person expressed by         the subject.

THE subjective Participle complex

is used with

the verbs

denoting

sense

perceptions:

to see

to hear

to watch

to notice

to consider

She was seen walking along the street..

Two people were heard quarelling .

They were watched playing in the garden.

He was noticed entering the office.

The work was considered finished .

THE absolute Participle complex

The rain having stopped , we went home.

The day being fine , she went for a walk.

Time permitting , we’ll go to the forest.

In this complex Participle has its own subject expressed by a noun in the Common Case or a personal pronoun in the Nominative case.

Functions

Examples

Complex Subject

(The Subjective Participle complex)

They were heard speaking in a lively manner.

He was seen surrounded by a group of students.

He was noticed entering the library.

Complex Object

(The Objective Participle complex)

I saw the workers packing the goods.

They watched the car being repaired .

They want the goods shipped on Monday.

Attribute

The cars being produced at our plant are very good.

Adverbial Modifier

Walking in the park , he met his old friend.

The Absolute Participle complex

The letter being written , I went to post it.

He being tired , I decided not to disturb him.

The Gerund. Forms and Functions

Gerund

Active

Passive

Uses

Indefinite

reading

being read

The action expressed        by the gerund:

a) is simultaneous with that expressed by

the finite verb.

b) doesn’t refer to any     particular time.

She likes reading .

She likes being read .

Perfect

having read

having been read

The action expressed       by the gerund precedes that expressed by            the finite verb.

Thank you for having helped me .

I remember having been asked this question.

Functions

Examples

Subject

Reading books is useful.

Smoking is harmful.

Reading love stories made her cry.

Predicative

His hobby is collecting stamps.

The main thing is getting there in time.

Seeing is believing .

Part of a Compound Verbal Predicate

She went on reading .

She stopped smoking .

Direct Object

I couldn’t avoid speaking to her.

The film is worth seeing .

I don’t mind waiting .

Prepositional Object

I am fond of reading .

He insisted on doing the work himself.

I don’t like his habit of making people wait.

Attribute

All liked the idea of going to the country.

I have no intention of discussing this question.

There are different ways of solving this problem.

Adverbial Modifier

On entering the room he came up to me.

He left the room without saying a word.

Excuse me for being so late.

REFERENCE LIST OF VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUNDS

1. admit

2. advise

3. anticipate

4. appreciate

5. avoid

6. complete

7. consider

8. delay

9. deny

10. discuss

11. dislike

12. enjoy

13. finish

14. forget

15. can’t help

16. keep

17. mention

18. mind

19. miss

20. postpone

21. practise

22. quit

23. recall

24. recollect

25. recommend

26. regret

27. remember

28. resent

29. resist

30. risk

31. stop

32. suggest

33. tolerate

34. understand

He admitted stealing the money.

She advised waiting until tomorrow.

I anticipate having a good time on vacation.

I appreciated hearing from them.

He avoided answering my question.

I finally completed writing my term paper.

I will consider going with you.

He delayed leaving for school.

She denied committing the crime.

They discussed opening a new business.

I dislike driving long distances.

We enjoyed visiting them.

She finished studying about ten.                                                        I’ ll never forget visiting Napoleon’s tomb.

I can’t help worrying about it.

I keep hoping he will come.

She mentioned going to the cinema.

Would you mind helping me with this?

I miss being with my family.

Let’s postpone leaving until tomorrow.

The athlete practised throwing the ball.

He quitted trying to solve the problem.

I don’t recall meeting him before.

I don’t recollect meeting him before.

She recommended seeing the show.

I regret telling him my secret.

I can remember meeting him when I was a child.

I resent her interfering in my business.

I couldn’t resist eating the dessert.

She risks losing all of her money.

She stopped going to classes when she got sick.

She suggested going to the cinema.

She won’t tolerate cheating during an examination.

I don’t understand his leaving school.

the Gerund ial complex

The Gerundial Complex consists of a noun (in the Common or Possessive Case) or a possessive pronoun and the gerund.

Functions

Examples

Complex Subject

Your coming here is very desirable.
It’s no use my telling you a lie.

Predicative

What annoys me is his being careless .

Direct Object

I don’t like his reading aloud.
Forgive my saying it.

Prepositional Object

I insist on your doing it.
Everything depends on your getting there in time.

Attribute

Everyone liked the idea of his joining us.
I don’t know the reason of your leaving .

Adverbial Modifier

He entered the room without his seeing it.

Conditional sentences

Type
of condition

if-clause

main clause

Examples

Type I
Real
condition
(refers to         the future)


Present
Indefinite


Future Indefinite
can + Infinitive


If I have enough money,
I will/ can buy a car.

Type II
(refers to         the present   or future)
Unreal condition


Present
Subjunctive II
(Past Indefinite)


would/could +
Infinitive


If I had enough money,
I would/could buy a car

Type III
(refers to        the past)
Unreal condition


Past
Subjunctive II
(Past Perfect )


would/could have
+ Past Participle


If I had had enough money, I would/could have bought a car.     

Irregular VerBs

Infinitive

Past Indefinite

Past Participle

1

2

3

abide

arise

awake

be

bear

beat

become

befall

beget

begin

behold

bend

bereave

beseech

beset

bet

bid

bind

bite

bleed

bless

blow

break

breed

bring

broadcast

build

burn

burst

buy

cast

catch

choose

cleave

cling

терпіти

виникати

будити

бути

нести; народжувати

бити

ставати

траплятися

виробляти

починати

помічати

згинати(ся)

втрачати

благати, просити

оточувати

битися об заклад

пропонувати ціну

зв’язувати

кусати(ся)

кровоточити

благословляти

дути

ламати(ся)

розводити

приносити

передавати по радіо

будувати

палити, горіти

спалахнути

купувати

кидати, скидати

ловити

вибирати

розколювати(ся)

чіплятися

abode, abided

arose

awoke

was, were

bore

beat

became

befell

begot

began

beheld

bent

bereaved, bereft

besought

beset

bet, betted

bade, bid

bound

bit

bled

blessed, blest

blew

broke

bred

brought

broadcast (-ed)

built

burnt, burned

burst

bought

cast

caught

chose

clove, cleft

clung

abode, abided

arisen

awaked, awoke

been

borne, born

beaten

become

befallen

begotten

begun

beheld

bent, bended

bereaved, bereft

besought

beset

bet, betted

bidden, bid

bound

bitten, bit

bled

blessed, blest

blown

broken (broke)

bred

brought

broadcast (-ed)

built

burnt, burned

burst

bought

cast

caught

chosen

cloven, cleft

clung

1

2

3

clothe

come

cost

creep

cut

dare

deal

dig

do

draw

dream

drink

drive

dwell

eat

fall

feed

feel

fight

find

flee

fling

fly

forbid

forecast

forego

foresee

foretell

forget

forgive

forsake

freeze

get

gild

give

go

grind

вдягати

приходити

коштувати

повзти, повзати

різати

сміти; наважуватися

займатися

копати; рити

робити

тягти; малювати

мріяти

пити

водити; їхати

жити; мешкати

їсти

падати

годувати

відчувати

битися

знаходити

тікати; уникати

кидати(ся)

літати

забороняти

передбачати

передувати

передбачати

провіщати

забувати

прощати

залишати; покидати

морозити

отримувати

золотити

давати

ходити

точити; шліфувати

clothed (clad)

came

cost

crept

cut

dared (durst)

dealt

dug

did

drew

dreamed, dreamt

drank

drove

dwelt

ate

fell

fed

felt

fought

found

fled

flung

flew

forbade, forbad

forecast, forecasted

forewent

foresaw

foretold

foregot

forgave

forsook

froze

got

gilded, gilt

gave

went

ground

clothed (clad)

come

cost

crept

cut

dared

dealt

dug

done

drawn

dreamed, dreamt

drunk

driven

dwelt

eaten

fallen

fed

felt

fought

found

fled

flung

flown

forbidden

forecast, forecasted

foregone

foreseen

foretold

foregotten

forgiven

forsaken

frozen

got, gotten

gilded

given

gone

ground

1

2

3

grow

hang

have

hear

heave

hew

hide

hit

hold

hurt

keep

knit

know

lade

lay

lead

lean

leap

learn

leave

lend

let

lie

light

lose

make

mean

meet

melt

mislay

mislead

mistake

mow

outdo

outgrow

overbear

overcast

рости

вішати

мати

чути

піднімати

рубати

ховати(ся)

ударяти

тримати

завдавати болю

тримати

в’язати; плести

знати

навантажувати

класти; накривати

вести

нахиляти(ся)

стрибати

вивчати

залишати

позичати

дозволяти

лежати

запалювати(ся)

втрачати

робити

означати

зустрічати

танути

загубити

вводити в оману

помилятися

косити

перевершувати

переростати

перемагати

хмаритися

grew

hung, hanged

had

heard

heaved, hove

hewed, hid

hid

hit

held

hurt

kept

knitted, knit

knew

laded

laid

led

leant, leaned

leapt, leaped

learnt, learned

left

lent

let

lay

lighted, lit

lost

made

meant

met

melted

mislaid

misled

mistook

mowed

outdid

outgrew

overbore

overcast

grown

hung, hanged

had

heard

heaved, hove

hewed, hewn

hidden, hid

hit

held

hurt

kept

knitted, knit

known

laden

laid

led

leant, leaned

leapt, leaped

learnt, learned

left

lent

let

lain

lighted, lit

lost

made

meant

met

melted, molten

mislaid

misled

mistaken

mowen

outdone

outgrown

oveborne

overcast

1

2

3

overcome

overdo

overdraw

overhear

overtake

overthrow

partake

pay

put

read

rebuild

relay

rend

retell

rid

ride

ring

rise

run

saw

say

see

seek

sell

send

set

sew

shake

shear

shed

shine

shoe

shoot

show

shut

sing

sink

sit

перемогти

перебільшувати

перевищувати

підслуховувати

доганяти

перекидати

брати участь

платити

класти

читати

відбудовувати

міняти; заміняти

рвати; розривати

переказувати

позбавляти

їхати верхи

дзвонити

вставати

бігати

пиляти

казати

бачити

шукати; просити

продавати

посилати

ставити; класти

шити; зашивати

трусити; хитати

стригти

губити; втрачати

світити; сяяти

взувати

стріляти

показувати

зачиняти(ся)

співати

тонути; осідати

сидіти

overcame

overdid

overdrew

overheard

overtook

overthrew

partook

paid

put

read

rebuilt

relaid

rent

retold

ridded, rid

rode

rang

rose

ran

sawed

said

saw

sought

sold

sent

set

sewed

shook

sheared

shed

shone

shod

shot

showed

shut

sang

sank

sat

overcome

overdone

overdrawn

overheard

overtaken

overthrown

partaken

paid

put

read

rebuilt

relaid

rent

retold

rid, ridded

ridden

rung

risen

run

sawn, sawed

said

seen

sought

sold

sent

set

sewn, sewed

shaken

shorn, sheared

shed

shone

shod

shot

shown, showed

shut

sung

sunk, sunken

sat

1

2

3

slay

sleep

sling

slink

slit

smell

sow

speak

speed

spend

spoil

spread

stand

stave

steal

stick

stride

strike

strive

swear

swell

swim

swing

take

teach

tear

tell

think

throw

thrust

understand

undertake

wake

wear

win

withdraw

withhold

write

приголомшити

спати

кидати; шпурляти

іти крадькома

розрізати вздовж

пахнути

сіяти; засівати

говорити

поспішати

витрачати

псувати(ся)

поширювати(ся)

стояти

розбитися

красти

колоти

переходити

бити; страйкувати

старатися

присягати(ся)

збільшуватися

плавати

гойдати(ся)

брати

навчати

руйнувати

розповідати

думати

кидати

штовхати

розуміти

починати; братися

будити

носити

вигравати

відкликати

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slew

slept

slung

slunk

slit

smelt, smelled

sowed

spoke

sped, speeded

spent

spoilt, spoiled

spread

stood

staved, stove

stole

stuck

strode

struck

strove

swore

swelled

swam

swung

took

taught

tore

told

thought

threw

thrust

understood

undertook

woke, waked

wore

won

withdrew

withheld

wrote

slain

slept

slung

slunk

slit

smelt, smelled

sown, sowed

spoken

sped, speeded

spent

spoilt, spoiled

spread

stood

staved, stove

stolen

stuck

stridden, strid

struck, stricken

striven

sworn

swollen, swelled

swum

swung

taken

taught

torn

told

thought

thrown

thrust

understood

undertaken

waked, woken

worn

won

withdrawn

withheld

written



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