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UNIT 15 - Англійська мова PDF Друк e-mail
Англійська мова - Англійська мова - Кунатенко Й. Ю.

U N I T 15

TOPIC: MONEY and FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS

TEXT A

TEXT B

GRAMMAR: The Gerund. Forms and Functions

The Gerundial Complex

READING DRILLS

1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a) stress the first syllable:

money, currency, basically, reasonably, substance, medium, worth, store, value, serve, issue, government, shape, kind, modern, primitive, portable, share, payment, carry, measure, coin, checkbook, durable, normal, purchase, stable;

b) stress the second syllable:

exchange, convert, familiar, metallic, addition, inflation, consider.

Text A

Basically, money is what money does. This means that money can be any substance 1 that functions as a Medium of Exchange, a Measure of Value, and a Store of Value.

As a medium of exchange, money is something generally accepted as 2 payment 3 for goods and services

As a measure of value, money expresses worth in terms that most individuals understand.

Money also serves as a store of value. This means goods or services can be converted into 4 money that is easily stored until some future time.

The different forms of money are in use in the United States today. The most familiar are coin and currency. The term coin refers to metallic forms of money. The term currency refers to paper money issued by government. While money has changed in shape, kind or size over the years, modern money still shares many of the same characteristics of primitive money. Modern money is very portable 5 when people carry checkbooks. For example, they really are carrying very large sums of money since checks can be written in almost any amount.

Modern money is very durable 6 . Metallic coins last a long time under normal use 7 and generally do not go out of circulation 8 unless they are lost. Paper currency also is reasonably durable. Modern money also rates high in divisibility 9 . The penny which is the smallest denomination of coin 10 , is more than small enough, for almost any purchase. In addition, checks almost always can be written for the exact amount. Modern money, however, is not as stable in value. The fact, that the money supply 11 often grew at a rate 10 to 12 per cent a year was considered as major cause of inflation.

COMMENTS

1. to be any substance — бути будь-якою річчю

2. to be accepted as — бути прийнятим як ...

3. payment — плата, платіж

4. to be converted into бути конвертованим у ...

5. to be very portable тут: легко переносити

6. to be very durable —  тут: довго використовуватися

7. ... last a long time under normal use — за нормального використання довго перебувають в обігу

8. to go out of circulation — виходити з обігу

9. to rate high in divisibility — високо цінити за можливість поділятися

10. denomination of coin — вартість монети

11. money supply — грошова маса

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

I. Find equivalents:

1. medium of exchange

2. measure of value

3. store of value.

4. to be any substance

5. to issue money

6. modern money

7. to go out of circulation

8. paper/soft money

9. money supply

10. to express worth

11. to be converted

12. payment

а. запас вартості

б. плата, платіж

в. бути конвертованим

г. паперові гроші

д. сучасні гроші

е. виражати вартість

є. грошова маса

ж. засіб обміну

з. бути будь-якою річчю

и. випускати гроші в обіг

і. міра вартості

ї. виходити з обігу

II. Fill in the blanks below with the most appropriate terms from

the list:

a store of value ; coin; a Medium of Exchange; currency; a measure of value; currency; inflation; the money supply.

1. Money can be any substance that functions as _________, a Measure of Value, and a Store of Value. 2. As ___________ , money expresses worth in terms that most individuals understand. 3. Money also serves as ___________ . 4. The term ________ refers to metallic forms of money.
5. The term _______ refers to paper money issued by government.
6. Metallic coins generally do not go out of circulation unless they are lost.
7. Paper _________ also is reasonably durable. 8. The fact, that __________ often grows at a rate 10 to 12 per cent a year is considered as major cause of ___________ .

III. Memorize the following words and word-combinations.

Use them in the sentences of your own:

active/circulating money

/money in circulation/ — гроші, що перебувають в обігу

bad/bogus/counterfeit money — фальшиві гроші

borrowed money — позичка

checking account money — гроші на поточному рахунку

credit/debt money — кредитні гроші

money at long — довгострокова позичка

money market — валютний ринок

ready/hard money — готівка

to make money — заробляти гроші / розбагатіти

to withdraw money — вилучати гроші з обігу

to keep money with a bank — тримати гроші в банку

to put/to invest money — вкладати гроші

to remit money — переказувати гроші

IV. Translate the sentences paying attention to the italicized words:

1. It’s quite interesting work and the money ’s all right. 2. The monetary unit of Japan is yen. 3. M onetary policy is aimed at controlling the amount of money in circulation , usually through controlling the level of lending or credit. 4. M oney supply can include notes, coins, and clearing-bank and other deposits used for everyday payments. 5. I am not made of money , you know! 6. I paid good money for that car and it broke down on the first day. 7. The pound had a steady day on the money markets.

V. Match each term in Column A with its definition in Column B:

Column A Column B

1. money

a. The exchange of one good or service for another.

2. currency

b. Anything generally accepted as payment for goods and services.

3. barter

c. A book of forms for writing cheques.

4. inflation

d. The total amount of money that exists in                   the economy of a country at a particular time.

5. check

e. Period of rising prices during which                         the purchasing power of the dollar is falling.

6. money supply

f. An institution, such as a bank, that deals in short-term loans, foreign exchange, etc.

7. money market

g. Paper money and coins issued by the federal government.

8. checkbook

h. Metallic forms of money.

9. coin

i. A special printed form on which one writes an order to a bank to pay a sum of money from one’s account.

VI. Define which of the following items best completes

the statement:

1. Most of the money in circulation consists of

a. paper money.

b. coins.

c. checking accounts.

d. savings accounts.

2. In a money economy, money serves as a

a. medium of exchange.

b. measure of value.

c. store of value.

d. all of the above.

3. The value of money

a. can increase or decrease.

b. remains the same at all times.

c. increases with the passage of time.

d. rises when prices rise.

4. The purchasing power of money

a. increases during periods of inflation.

b. decreases during an inflation.

c. decreases during a deflation.

d. is unaffected by inflation or deflation.

V II. Complete the following sentences:

1. Money can be any substance that functions as ... . 2. As a medium of exchange, money is ... . 3. As a measure of value, money expresses ... .
4. It also serves as ... . 5. This means ... . 6. The most familiar forms of money are ... . 7. The term coin refers ... . 8. The term currency refers ... .
9. Modern money is very portable when ... . 10. Metallic coins last a long time under normal use ... . 11. The penny which is the smallest denomination of coin, is ... . 12. The fact, that the money supply often grew at a rate 10—12 per cent a year was considered as ... .

V III . Answer the following questions:

1. In what function is money accepted as payment for goods and services? 2. What is money as a medium of exchange? 3. What does money express as a measure of value? 4. How does money function as a store of value? 5. What are the most familiar forms of money in the United States?
6. What is the difference between coin and currency? 7. What does the term currency refer to? 8. What are the most important characteristics of modern money? 9. What is the life-time of metallic coins? 10. How is the smallest denomination of coin called in the United States? 11. What is the major cause of inflation?

I X. Translate into English:

1. Гроші функціонують як засіб обігу, міра вартості та запас вартості. 2. Різні види грошей перебувають в обігу в Сполучених Шта­тах Америки. 3. Запас вартості означає, що товари та послуги можна легко конвертувати в гроші. 4. Термін «валюта» відноситься до паперо­вих грошей, а «монета» ¾ до грошей, виготовлених з металу. 5. Су­часні гроші мають ті самі характеристики, що й примітивні гроші. 6. Мета­леві гроші не виходять з обігу аж доти, доки їх не загублять. 7. Пенні — монета найменшої вартості в обігу. 8. Те, що грошова маса щороку зростає на 10—12 відсотків, є основною причиною інфляції.

READING DRILLS

1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a) stress the first syllable:

bank, safe, lend, fund, business, temporarily, functional, saver, borrower, cash, gain, asset, debt, property, possession, claim, balance, interest, loan, bond, statement, sheet, customer, prosper.

b) stress the second syllable:

fulfil, distinct, community, provide, excess, examine, liability, condense, return, invest, investment, attract, attractive, liquidity, convert, deposit, reflect, effect, increase, diversify.

c) stress the third syllable:

institution, understanding, obligation, introduce.

Text B

Banks fulfil two distinct needs in a community. For one they provide           a safe place for people to deposit their money 1 . For another, they lend excess funds 2 to individuals and business temporarily in need of cash 3 . In effect, banks act as functional institutions that bring savers and borrowers together 4 .

To gain a clear understanding 5 of the way in which a bank operates, let us examine the bank’s liabilities 6 and assets 7 .

Its liabilities are the debts and obligations to others. Its assets are the properties, possessions, and claims on others. These liabilities and assets generally are put together in the form of a balance sheet — condensed statement showing all assets and liabilities at a given point of time.

The balance sheet also reflects net worth — the excess of assets over liabilities 8 , which is a measure of the value of a business.

Most bank deposits return to the community in the form of loans.            The bank, however, might invest some of the cash in bonds. The bonds would be a good investment for two reasons. One is that they earn the interest 9 and therefore are more attractive than cash. The other is that they have a high degree of liquidity 10 , that is they can be converted into cash in a very short period of time. The liquidity adds to the bank’s ability to serve its customers. When the demand for loans increases, the bonds can be sold and the cash loaned to customers.

In time, the bank would grow and prosper diversifying its assets and liabilities in the process. It might use some of its excess funds to buy state or local bonds. It might loan some funds on a short-term basis to other banks. Then, too, a bank might use some of its assets to buy an interest in another business. The bank also might try to attract more depositors by introducing different kinds of accounts. Once the bank attracts more funds, it can make more loans and more profits.

COMMENTS

1. to deposit their money — для збереження вкладів

2. to lend excess funds — надавати кредит

3. ... in need of cash — коли потрібні гроші

4. ... that bring savers and borrowers together — що з’єднує кредиторів і дебіторів

5. to gain a clear understanding — щоб мати чітке уявлення

6. liabilities — пасив

7. asset s — актив

8. the excess of assets over liabilities — перевищення активів над пасивами

9. ... they earn the interest — на них нараховується відсоток

10. liquidity — ліквідність

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

I. Name the word-building elements and the part of speech
of each word:

bank — bankable — banker — banking — banknote — bankroll — bankrupt bankruptcy; convert — converter — convertible — convertibility; deposit — depositary — depositor — depository; invest — investment — investor.

II. Give the Ukrainian equivalents for the following words and

word-combinations. Use them in the sentences of your own:

to provide a safe place for people; to deposit money with a bank; to lend excess funds; to be in need of cash; balance sheet; to bring savers and borrowers together; net worth; assets and liabilities; to gain a clear understanding; to earn the interest; a measure of the value of a business; to loan some funds on a short-term basis; to have a high degree of liquidity; to attract more depositors; to buy an interest in another business.

III. Translate the sentences paying attention to the italicized words:

1. The bank of England has the sole right In England and Wales of issuing bank-notes . 2. When my brother grew up, he told himself he was going to be a broker, or a financier, or a banker . 3. He was banking on the train being in time. 4. I’m banking on your help. 5. The newspapers accused the President of being bankrupt in ideas. 6. She’s in banking . 7. It is, of course, possible that he banked the money under another name. 8. I had to deposit 10% of the price of the house. 9. The shop promised to keep the goods for me if I paid a deposit . 10. When a river rises, it deposits a layer of mud on the land. 11. The money is being kept on deposit .

IV. Find the terms in the text which describe the following:

1. Financial institution that accepts demand deposits and makes commercial loans. 2. The business transactions of a bank. 3. Money in coins or notes, as distinct from checks or orders. 4. Financial statement summarizing all assets, libilities and net worth. 5. The difference between business assets and its liabilities. 6. Something of value that is owned by an organization.
7. A person who saves money regularly, esp in a bank or building society.
8. A debt owed or an obligation incurred by an organization. 9. A thing that is lent. 10. Money paid to somebody who invests money. 11. A certificate issued by a government or a company promising to repay borrowed money at a fixed rate of interest at a specified time.

V. Fill in the blanks with prepositions or adverbs if necessary:

1. Banks fulfil two distinct needs ... a community. 2. They lend excess funds ... individuals and business temporarily ... need ... cash. 3. Most ... bank deposits return ... the community ... the form ... loans. 4. The bank might invest some ... the cash ... bonds. 5. The bank might use some ... its assets to buy an interest ... another business.

V I . Answer the following questions:

1. What needs do banks fulfil in a community? 2. How do banks act?          3. What is the difference between assets and liabilities? 4. What does the term balance sheet mean? 5. What does the balance sheet reflect? 6. What is net worth? 7. What are the reasons for the bonds to be a good investment?
8. When can the bonds be sold? 9. Under what conditions would the bank grow and prosper? 10. How might the bank use some of its excess funds and assets? 11. In what way might the bank try to attract more depositors?

V II. Translate into English:

1. Банки забезпечують людей місцем, куди б вони могли без ризику вкласти свої гроші (заощадження). 2. Банки тимчасово надають кредити приватним особам та підприємствам, коли ті потребують готівки. 3. Банківські пасиви — це борги та зобов’язання банку. 4. Банківські активи — це власність, майно та рекламації до інших банків. 5. Балансо­вий звіт — це документ, який у стислій формі відображає стан усіх активів та пасивів на даний період часу. 6. Банк міг би інвестувати деяку частину готівки в облігації (бонди). 7. Ліквідність сприяє здат­ності банку обслуговувати своїх клієнтів. 8. Коли банк залучатиме біль­ше фондів, він зможе надавати більші позики та одержувати більший прибуток.

COMMUNICATIVE SITUATIONS

1. You have an exam. Your question is «Money in our society».

2. Discuss the functions of money:

n Medium of Exchange (money is accepted by people when they buy or sell goods and services or productive resources);

n Standard of Value (money is used like a ruler to compare the value of things people buy and sell).

n Store of Value (Money is a way to store value from the time people receive it until another time when they spend it).

  1. 3.    Discuss the characteristics of money that help make it effective in accomplishing these functions: portability, uniformity, acceptability, durability, divisibility, stability in value.
  2. 4.    Discuss the types of money and give examples of each type: commodity money (gold, silver), representative money (old U.S. Notes), fiat money (U.S. currency and coin), checkbook money.
  3. 5.    Ask your fellow students what they know about Ukraine’s banking system.
    1. 6.     Express your attitude to the following expressions:

n Money spent on the brain is never spent in vain.

n Time is money.

n Money is the root of all evil.

n Money is the guarantee of security.

n Money has no smell.

n No bees, no honey; no work, no money.

GRAMMAR EXERCISES

The Gerund. Forms and Functions

I. Change the sentences according to the pattern:

Pattern A: I like to read detective stories.

I like reading detective stories.

1. I began to write poems very early. 2. They stopped to smoke. 3. I hate to write letters. 4. I remember to tell you about it. 5. They prefer to stay at home in the evening. 6. His mother intends to spend her holiday in the Crimea. 7. She tried to open the window but couldn’t. 8. I have just begun to translate the text.

Pattern B: Don’t worry about it. It’s no use.

It’s no use worrying about it.

1. Don’t smoke. It’s a waste of money. 2. He solves cross-word puzzles very well. He is good at it. 3. Don’t get angry. It’s not worth it.
4. Don’t study if you are feeling tired. There is no point. 5. Don’t ask Tom to help you. It’s no good. 6. Don’t get a taxi. It’s no use.

II. State the form of the Gerund. Translate the sentences:

1. On seeing the funny toy, the child burst out laughing. 2. I remember having invited my friends to my place. 3. Children like being told tales.
4. He doesn’t like being praised in the presence of his fellow-students.
5. Why don’t you do the work properly without being reminded ? 6. I am glad having met her last week. 7. Who is responsible for the prices not having been fixed yet ? 8. I look forward to going home next month. 9. I am surprised at your having missed so many lessons. 10. Choosing a present for that boy was not an easy matter for me.

III. Use the correct form of the Gerund:

1. I am tired of ( to treat ) like a child. 2. Everybody was surprised at her ( to leave ) so soon. 3. You’ve changed so much that he might be excused for not ( to recognize ) you. 4. I prefer ( to drive ) to ( to drive ) 5. I was proud of ( to invite ) there. 6. I have come to apologize for ( to cause ) all that trouble.
7. This matter wants ( to clear up ). 8. He was ashamed of ( to be ) rude to his sister. 9. It isn’t worth ( to speak ) about it. 10. He hates ( to ask ) about it. 11. Stop ( to argue ) and start ( to work ). 12. By ( to work ) day and night he succeeded in ( to finish ) his work in time.

IV. State the function of the Gerund. Translate the sentences:

1. Dieting is very popular today. 2. This film is worth seeing. 3. Before leaving Kyiv we shall inform you. 4. They listened to her without interrupting. 5. Have you the means of helping him now? 6. In correcting your dictations I found very few mistakes. 7. What annoys me is his being careless. 8. In spite of being tired they decided to go on with their work. 9. She has the gift of being able to work sixteen hours. 10. He didn’t say a word for fear of interfering into their conversation. 11. In spite of myself I couldn’t help smiling. 12. I don’t feel like walking. 13. She had stopped asking about the time. 14. He was afraid of being poor.

V. Complete the sentences using the Gerund:

1. My sister was never tired of ... . 2. He left the room without ... . 3. He went to bed after ... . 4. Have you finished ...? 5. She is very fond of ... . 6. It is worth while ... . 7. I couldn’t help ... .  8. At last we succeeded in ... .
9. Thank you for ... . 10. ... is useful. 11. Her hobby is ... . 12. I don’t mind ... . 13. I have really no intention of ... . 14. They looked at each other without ... . 15. He went on reading a book instead of ... . 16. Do you feel like ... ?

VI. Insert prepositions where necessary:

1. I stopped, ... opening the door. 2. I kept her ... falling down. 3. This time he felt no surprise ... meeting his friend. 4. He tore the note into pieces ... reading it. 5. Outside it kept ... raining. 6.  ... washing up she broke a cup. 7. He wasted a lot of time ... trying to find another way home. 8. What did she mean ... being busy? 9. I insist ... remaining here. 10. I thanked him again ... lending me the car. 11. She went up to her bedroom ... looking back. 12. I wonder what prevented him ... coming to the party. 13. There is no harm ... asking her again. 14. I’m getting hungry. I’m looking forward ... having dinner. 15. I’ve been thinking ... looking for a new job.

VII. Translate into Ukrainian:

1. It’s no use arguing with her. 2. There is no sense in doing this work now. 3. Be careful in crossing the street. 4. He insists on doing the job himself. 5. He is against informing them of it now. 6. You have no reason for saying it. 7. The rain prevented me from calling on you yesterday. 8. We couldn’t help laughing when we heard it. 9. He had a feeling of being watched. 10. He left without letting us know.

VIII. Translate into English:

1. Головне — потрапити туди вчасно. 2. Я не можу дозволити собі купити цю дорогу річ. 3. Я не можу не думати про це. 4. Я пам’я­таю, що зустрічав його десь. 5. Він звик вставати рано. 6. Ми не могли уникнути розмови з нею. 7. Вона вийшла з кімнати, не глянувши на нас. 8. Я не маю наміру обговорювати це питання. 9. Мені не подоба­ється, коли зі мною так розмовляють (in such a manner). 10. Терпіти не можу чекати. 11. Це варто читати? 12. У мене немає надії побачити його найближчим часом. 13. Ми наполягали на тім, щоб вони почали переговори. 14. Вона нічого не мала проти того, щоб зайти ще раз. 15. Він почав турбуватися. 16. Я не могла не всміхнутися. 17. Коли ви почнете обговорювати статтю?

T he Gerund ial Complex

IX. Paraphrase the sentences using  Gerundial Complexes:

Pattern A: Do you mind if I close the window?

Do you mind my closing the window?

1. The doctor insisted that I should stay at home. 2. There is no chance that they will call on us tonight. 3. There is no possibility that we shall see him this week. 4. We insisted that he should come with us. 5. I have heard that your son has been awarded the Order. 6. Will you object if I smoke here? 7. You will excuse me if I ask you again. 8. There is no hope that you will receive a letter from him soon. 9. There is no fear that I shall forget.
10. You will excuse me if I ask you again.

Pattern B: I want she to recite this poem.

I insist on her reciting this poem.

I dont want him to be sent here.

I object to his being sent there.

1. They wanted me to take part in the competition. 2. I don’t want Jane to stay here alone. 3. I don’t want him to be elected chairman. 4. Mother did not want Mary to go to the cinema. 5. The teacher wanted the students to do this exercise. 6. I want her to be sent to the conference.

X. Replace the Gerund by a Gerundial Complex by adding

a Subject to it:

Pattern: I’m against writing this review.

I’m against your writing this review.

1. I fail to see the point of raising the question now. 2. She simply can’t help laughing at you. 3. We did not mind waiting a little. 4. It’s no good trying to make her change her mind. 5. I’ll take the opportunity of being here to ask you some questions. 6. I’m used to coming home very late. 7. He succeded only through making the right contacts from the very beginning. 8. Everything depends on your getting there in time.

XI. Replace the Subordinate Clauses by Gerundial Complexes:

1. When I received the telegram, I started home at once. 2. While he was copying the text, he made a few mistakes. 3. You may avoid many mistakes if you observe these rules. 4. You can improve your knowledge of English if you read more. 5. When she left school, she got a job at the post-office. 6. When he entered the room, he greeted everybody. 7. After he had packed all the things he phoned for a taxi. 8. I don’t remember that I have ever come across his name before. 9. She hesitated before she entered the room. 10. When I was passing their house, I noticed that all the windows were dark.

XII. Put questions to the Gerundial Complexes in different

functions:

1. It is surprising his being sent abroad. 2. I was sruck by the fact of his having solved so complicated problem in almost no time. 3. We insisted on his being shown the results of the experiment. 4. I haven’t heard of his having been offered the post of director. 5. Your coming here is very desirable. 6. She wrote the letter without my knowing. 7. My having answered all the questions of an examination card satisfied the teacher very much. 8. I entered the room without his seeing it. 9. Our meeting him their was a pleasant surprise. 10. They aimed at being invited to the conference.

XIII. Think of situations where you can use the following sentences:

1. She realized it was no use asking questions. 2. He didn’t like being made fun of. 3. He liked watching the birds. 4. She was not used to being kept waiting. 5. I look forward to seeing him again. 6. He smiled without answering and the next minute he was gone. 7. There is no point in arguing about it. 8. He finished the interview without giving me an opportunity to answer. 9. He looked at her for some time without seeing her. 10. What prevents you from realizing the truth?

XIV. Translate into English:

1. Ви не будете заперечувати, якщо я приєднаюся до вашої ком­панії? 2. Я не заперечую проти того, щоб вони приїхали сюди. 3. Мене дивує, що ви так часто запізнюєтеся. 4. Вона з нетерпінням чекає, коли її запросять на вечірку. 5. Те, що вона зайнята, не завадило їй взяти участь у цій роботі. 6. Пробачте, що я турбую вас знову. Пробачте, що я потурбував вас. 7. Усе залежить від того, чи погода буде гарною. 8. мама наполягала на тому, щоб діти лягали спати вчасно. 9. Ми сподівалися, що він справляє на всіх добре враження. 10. Нас повідомили, що всі студенти нашої групи взяли участь у цій роботі. 11. Цей фільм варто подивитися. 12. Отримавши телеграму, я поїхав на вокзал. 13. Ви проти того, щоб він брав участь у змаганнях? 14. Я чув, що вони вже закін­чили свій експеримент.

EXERCISES for individual work

I.  Use the correct form of the Gerund. Add a preposition
if necessary
:

1. I think I’ll have a chance ... ( to introduce ) you to my friends. 2. Boys always enjoy ... ( to swim ). 3. I’ve just had the pleasure ... ( to introduce ) to your sister. 4. She insisted ... ( to help ) me. 5. They had much difficulty ... ( to find ) the house. 6. I have no intention ... ( to stay ) here any longer. 7. He is afraid ... ( to catch ) cold. 8. She had to leave the house ... ( to see ) by anybody. 9. Are you fond ... ( to play ) chess? 10. He is engaged ... ( to write ) a book. 11. I think ... ( to go ) to the south in summer. 12. The rain prevented me ... ( to come ). 13. Tom is proud ... ( to do ) an important work. 14. There is no possibility ... (to find) his address.

II. Insert prepositions where necessary:

1. He succeeded ... getting what he wanted. 2. This prevented the letter ... being sent off. 3. He has a strange habit ... drinking strong tea in the evening. 4. They insisted ... our beginning the negotiations at once. 5. He left the house ... waking anyone. 6. There is no excuse ... his doing such a thing. 7. We have heard ... the agreement having been reached. 8. Have you the means ... helping him now? 9. You can improve your knowledge of English ... reading more. 10. He has had very much experience ... teaching. 11. ... receiving the telegram I phoned to my brother. 12. We were informed ... their taking part in this work.

III. Put the verbs in brackets into the Gerund or Infinitive:

1. I am looking forward to ( see ) you. 2. We arranged ( meet ) them here. 3. I wish ( see ) the manager. 4. It’s no use ( wait ). 5. Don’t forget ( lock ) the door before ( go ) to bed. 6. My mother told me ( not speak ) to anyone about it. 7. He tried ( explain ) but she refused ( listen ). 8. I am beginning ( understand ) what you mean. 9. Most people prefer ( spend ) money to ( earn ) it. 10. The boys like ( play ) games but hate ( do ) lessons. 11. I know my hair wants ( cut ) but I never have time ( go ) to the hairdresser’s. 12. After ( hear ) the conditions I decided ( not enter ) for the competition. 13. Please go on ( write ), I don’t mind ( wait ). 14. Do stop ( talk ). I am trying ( finish ) a letter. 15. I hate ( see ) a child ( cry ).

IV. Put the verbs in brackets into the Gerund, Infinitive or

Participle:

1. Try ( avoid ) ( be ) late. He hates ( be ) kept ( wait ). 2. He offered ( lend ) me the money. I didn’t like ( take ) it but I had no alternative. 3. I didn’t know how ( get ) to your house so I stopped ( ask ) the way. 4. I can hear the bell ( ring ) but nobody seems ( be coming ) ( open ) the door. 5. He heard the clock ( strike ) six and l knew that it was time for him ( get up ). 6. It’s no good ( write ) to him. He never anwers letters. The only thing ( do ) is ( go ) and ( see ) him. 7. Ask him ( come ) in. Don’t keep him ( stand ) at the door. 8. It is very unpleasant ( wake ) up and ( hear ) the rain ( beat ) on the windows. 9. There are people who can’t help ( laugh ) when they see someone ( slip ) on a banana skin.

V. Translate into English:

1. Мені не подобається його звичка змушувати людей чекати. 2. Ми думаємо поїхати до Чорного моря влітку. 3. Вона була сердита на нього за те, що він загубив її словник. 4. Ви не проти мого від’їзду? 5. Чи вда­лося йому знайти нашу адресу? 6. Цей будинок варто продати. 7. Я пам’я­таю, що дивився цей фільм багато років тому. 8. Пробачте, що я прийшов так пізно. 9. Я хочу уникнути помилок. 10. Ви ніколи не будете говорити добре англійською мовою, не вивчивши граматики. 11. Ти маєш бажання піти на прогулянку? 12. Я не заперечую проти того, щоб ви курили тут. 13. Буря завадила нам туди добратися вчасно. 14. Замість того, щоб працювати, він заснув. 15. Я не можу перекласти документ, не з’ясувавши значення кількох слів у словнику. 16. Я напо­лягаю, щоб ви відповіли їм відразу ж. 17. Він вийшов з кімнати, не звертаючи уваги на сина. 18. Після закінчення університету вона пра­цювала на заводі. 19. Він почав читати цю книжку вчора. 20. Дякую, що ти допомагаєш мені. 21. Побачивши викладача, студенти підійшли до нього. 22. Він пам’ятає, що бачив її в магазині.

 

В России достаточно много красивых городов, отличающихся свое необыкновенной природной красотой, нам например очень нравится природа Кисловодска за ее неподдельную чистоту.

 

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