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UNIT 5 - Англійська мова PDF Друк e-mail
Англійська мова - Англійська мова - Кунатенко Й. Ю.

U N I T  5

TOPIC: WHAT IS ECONOMICS?

TEXT A

TEXT B

TEXT C

TEXT D

GRAMMAR: The Past Indefinite Tense. The Functions of the Verb to do

The Future Indefinite Tense. The Imperative Mood

READING DRILLS

1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a) stress the first syllable:

necessary, possible, business, labour, spending, politics, science, careful, satisfy, effort, taxes, government, relatively, scarce, living, utilizing;

b) stress the second syllable:

unfortunately, define, mankind, produce, production, exchange, activity, consumption, description, psychology, effect, competing, determine, unlimited, inflation, concern, resources, pretend, attempt;

c) stress the third syllable :

economics, economic, distribution, international, interaction, sociology, unemployment.

Text A

Studying economics for the first time, it is necessary to know what economics is all about 1 . Unfortunately, it is not possible to define the subject by a single word. Economics was defined as the study of mankind in the everyday business life. This means that economics deals with production, distribution, exchange and consumption. It answers such questions as: How do we produce all the things we need? How are prices determined? Economics is also concerned with 2 unemployment, inflation, international trade, the interaction of business and labour, and the effects of government spending 3 and taxes.

Economics does not stop with the description of economic activity because description alone leaves unanswered many important why and how questions.

Economics is a social science like history, geography, politics, psychology and sociology. It is the study of human efforts to satisfy what seems like unlimited and competing wants 4 through the careful use of relatively scarce resources. Economists study what is or tends to be and how it came to be. They do not in any way pretend to tell what ought to be. People must make up their own minds 5 about that.

Economics is therefore concerned with activities relating to wealth, i.e. production, consumption, exchange and distribution.

For our own purpose, we shall define economics as the study of man in his attempts to gain a living 6 by utilizing his limited resources.

COMMENTS

1. ... what economics is all about — що складає економiку

2. to be concerned with — мати справу із; займатися

3. the effects of government spending — ефективнiсть урядових витрат

4. ... unlimited and competing wants — необмеженi потреби, що пос­тійно зростають

5. to make up one’s own mind — вирiшувати самому

6. to gain a living — заробляти на життя

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

I. Find equivalents:

1. for the first time

2. production

3. distribution

4. exchange

5. consumption

6. to determine price

7. international trade

8. unemployment

9. scarce resources

10. unlimited wants

11. to make up one’s own mind

12. limited resources

13. to gain a living

14. taxes

a. необмеженi потреби

б. розподiл

в. cпоживання

г. виробництво

д. уперше

е. недостатні ресурси

є. вирiшувати самому

ж. обмiн

з. безробiття

и. обмеженi ресурси

i. визначати цiну

ї. мiжнародна торгiвля

й. податки

к. заробляти на життя

II. Form nouns using suffixes -ion, -tion:

to produce, to distribute, to interact, to inflate, to consume, to determine, to relate, to define, to connect, to describe, to satisfy, to utilize.

III. Fill in the blanks with prepositions or adverbs if necessary:

1. Unfortunately, it is not possible to define the subject ... a single word. 2. Economics deals ... production, distribution, exchange and consumption. 3. Economics is also concerned ... unemployment, inflation, international trade, the interaction ... business and labour, and the effects ...  government spending and taxes. 4. Economics does not stop ... the description ... economic activity ... description alone leaves unanswered many important why and how questions. 5. It is the study ... human efforts to satisfy what seems like unlimited and competing wants ... the careful use ... relatively scarce resources.

IV. Complete the following sentences:

1. Economics was defined ... . 2. It answers such questions as ... .
3. Economics is also concerned with ... . 4. It does not stop with the description of economic activity because ... . 5. Economics is a social science like ... . 6. Economics is the study of ... .

V. Match each term in Column A with its definition in Column B:

Column A                                           Column B

1. economics

a. Something in short supply; not enough to meet      demand.

2. production

b. Activity of buying and using goods.

3. distribution

c. The creation of services or the changing of material into products.

4. exchange

d. The activity of selling goods and services in order to make a profit.

5. consumption

e. The production, distribution and sale of goods and services for a profit.

6. business

f. The movement of finished products from

the manufacturing location to the marketplace.

7. trade

g. The social science that describes and analyzes how society chooses from among scarce resources to satisfy its wants.

8. scarce

h. The process of trading or bartering one unit or set of goods or services for another unit or set.

VI. Define which of the following items best completes

the statement:

1. Economics is a social science like

a. history.

b. politics.

c. mathematics.

d. sociology.

2. Economics deals with

a. production.

b. distribution.

c. exchange.

d. consumption.

VII. Answer the following questions:

1. What is necessary to know studying economics for the first time?            2. What does economics deal with? 3. What questions does economics answer? 4. Why does economics not stop with the description of economic activity?          5. What kind of science is economics? 6. What does economics study?
7. What do economists study? 8. What must people make up their own minds about? 9. How shall we define economics?

VIII. Translate into English:

1. Неможливо визначити економiку одним словом. 2. Економiка визначалася як вивчення людства в повсякденному дiловому життi .
3. Економiка вiдповiдає на питання: Як визначається цiна? 4. Еконо­мiка не вичерпується описом економiчної дiяльностi. 5. Економiсти ви-
вчають зусилля людини, спрямовані на задоволення своїх необмежених потреб і водночас на бережливе використання вiдносно недостатнiх ресурсiв. 6. Ученi в жодному разi не мають намiру розповiдати про те, що має бути. 7. Отже, економiку зв’язано з дiяльнicтю для забезпечення добробуту.

READING DRILLS

1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a) stress the first syllable:

term, need, want, necessary, clothing, purchase, sometimes, love, shelter, food, level, means, satisfy, hamburger, favourite, point, difference, marketplace, product, count, range, willingness, measurable;

b) stress the second syllable:

vocabulary, demand, requirement, survival, accomplishment, acceptance, review, express, reflect, particular, ability, desire;

c) stress the third syllable:

represent, individual.

Text B

Economics like any other social science has its own vocabulary. To understand economics, a review of some key terms 1 is necessary: needs 2 , wants 3 , and demands 4 .

A need is a basic requirement for survival. People have basic needs such as food, clothing and shelter. People also have higher level needs, such as communication, love, acceptance, knowledge, hope and accomplishment.

A want is a means of expressing a need. Food, for example, is a basic need related to survival. To satisfy this need, a person may want a pizza, hamburger or other favourite food. That is there are any number of foods that will satisfy the basic need for food.

The point is 5 that the range of things represented by the term «want» is much broader than those represented by the term «need».

Sometimes the difference between a want and a need is clear, at other times, it is not.

A basic need is reflected in a want for a particular product 6 . A want cannot be counted in the marketplace until it becomes a demand — the willingness and ability to purchase a desired object. Since an individual has limited resources, only some wants will end up as measurable demands 7 .

COMMENTS

1. key terms — основнi термiни

2. needs — потреби

3. wants — бажання

4. demand — попит

5. the point is — річ у тім, що

6. particular product — певний продукт

7. measurable demand — урахований попит

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

I. Give the English equivalents for:

суспiльна наука; основнi термiни; бажання; попит; основнi потреби; житло; основна вимога для виживання; певний продукт; потреби вищого ґатунку (рiвня); почуття завершеностi; спосіб вираження потреби; улюблена їжа; річ у тім, що; готовнiсть; урахований попит; здатнiсть (спроможнiсть); бажана рiч; обмеженi ресурси.

II. Give the corresponding nouns to the following verbs:

to require, to know, to accept, to survive, to achieve, to satisfy, to differ, to communicate, to develop, to fulfil, to employ, to relate, to express, to reflect, to establish, to accomplish.

III. Fill in the blanks below with the most appropriate terms

from the list:

service; social science; product; basic needs; demand; need; want; marketplace.

1. Economics like any other ________ has its own vocabulary. 2. People have _____________ such as food, clothing and shelter. 3. The range of things represented by the term _________ is much broader than those represented by the term __________ . 4. A want cannot be counted in the __________ until it becomes a __________ . 5. Demand is the consumer’s willingness and ability to buy a _________ or _________ at a particular time and place.

IV. Say whether these statements are true or false and if they are

false say why:

1. Economics like any other social science has its own vocabulary.
2. A need is a basic requirement for survival. 3. People have basic needs and higher level needs. 4. A want is a means of expressing a need. 5. Food is a basic need related to survival. 6. Demand is a willingness and ability to purchase a desired object. 7. The difference between a want and a need is always clear.

V. Answer the following questions:

1. What is necessary to understand economics? 2. What are the key terms of economics? 3. What does the term need mean? 4. What are basic people’s needs? 5. What is a means of expressing a need? 6. Is food a basic need related to survival? 7. Is the difference between a want and a need always clear? 8. What is demand?

VI. Translate into English:

1. Економiка, як і будь-яка iнша cуспільна наука має свiй слов­ник. 2. Спiлкування, почуття кохання, пiзнання, сподiвання — усе це людськi потреби вищого ґатунку. 3. Бажання — це спосіб вираження потреби. 4. Iснує багато продуктiв харчування, якi можуть задоволь­нити основну потребу в їжi. 5. Попит — це готовнiсть та спроможнiсть купити бажану рiч. 6. Оскiльки людина має обмеженi ресурси, тiльки деякi бажання реалiзуються як урахований попит.

READING DRILLS

1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a) stress the first syllable:

useful, relatively, possibly, scarce, price, service, final, capital, sunshine, rainfall, haircut, lawyer, touch, plentiful, willing, pay, major;

b) stress the second syllable:

concern, transferable, impossible, appliance, describe, consumer, intend, important, command, produce, perform, performance, include, repair;

c) stress the third syllable:

manufacture, entertainment.

Text C

The study of economics is concerned with economic products — goods and services that are useful, relatively scarce and transferable to others. The important thing is that economic products are scarce in an economic sense. That is one cannot get enough to satisfy individual wants and needs 1 . The fact that economic products command a price shows that they have these characteristics.

The terms goods and services are used to describe many things people   desire. Consumer goods are intended for 2 final use by individuals to satisfy their wants and needs. Manufactured goods used to produce other goods and services are called capital good s 3 . An example of  capital goods would be a computer in a school.

The other type of economic product is a work that is performed for someone. Services can include haircuts, repairs to home appliances 4 and forms of entertainment like rock performances. They also include the work performed  by doctors, lawyers and teachers. The difference between goods and services is that the services are something that cannot be touched or felt like goods.

Many other things — sunshine, rainfall, fresh air — are known as free products 5 because they are so plentiful. No one could possibly own them, nor would most people be willing to pay anything for them. In fact, some are so important, that life would be impossible without them. Even so, free products are not scarce enough to be major concern in the study of economics.

COMMENTS

1. wants and needs — бажання та потреби

2. to be intended for — призначатися для

3. capital good s — засoби виробництва

4. home appliances — побутовi прилади

5. free products —  безкоштовні продукти

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

I. State the part of speech and say how the words are formed:

economics, useful, relatively, scarce, scarcity, transferable, performance, difference, economic, entertainment, service, to satisfy, plentiful, manufactured, lawyer, haircut, sunshine, rainfall, unfortunately, unlimited.

II. Find equivalents:

1. goods and services

2. scarce

3. to be intended for

4. to satisfy needs and wants

5. consumer goods

6. a major concern

7. capital goods

8. manufactured goods

9. home appliances

10. free products

11. to repair

12. entertainment

а. споживчi товари

б. призначатися для

в. недостатній, дефiцитний

г. ремонтувати

д. розвага

е. безкоштовнi товари

є. промисловi товари

ж. побутовi прилади

з. товари та послуги

и. засоби виробництва

i. головна турбота

ї. задовольняти потреби та бажання

III. Fill in the blanks below with the most appropriate terms

from the list:

capital goods; manufactured goods; free products; consumer goods; service; goods.

1. The terms ___________ and services are used to describe many things people desire. 2. _____________ are intended to satisfy individuals’ wants and needs. 3. _________ are used to produce other goods and services. 4. A haircut is an example of  __________ . 5. Sunshine, rainfall, fresh air are _________ . 6. ____________ include plant and machinery, industrial buildings, and raw materials.

I V. Match each term in Column A with its definition in Column B:

Column A                                           Column B

1. goods

a. Something in short supply; not enough to meet       demand.

2. services

b. Something intended for final use by individuals    to satisfy their wants and needs.

3. price

c. The goods or services one receives in                  an exchange.

4. capital goods

d. Tangible commodities or merchandise.

5. product

e. Work performed for someone.                   Intangible commodity.

6. free products

f. The money value of goods or services.

7. consumer goods

g. Something created to produce other goods

or services.

8. scarce

h. Products existing in such large quantities that    they need not be rationed out among those wishing to use them.

V. Define which of the following items best completes the statement:

1. The study of economics is concerned with economic products
that are

a. useful.

b. free.

c. scarce.

d. transferable.

2. Good s in the economic sense may be

a. a haircut.

b. a washing machine.

c. a visit to a doctor.

d. advice from a lawyer.

3. Scarcity exists because of

a. unlimited wants.

b. governmental regulation.

c. limited land, labour and capital resources.

d. unlimited wants and limited land, labour and capital resources.

V I . Complete the following sentences:

1. The study of economics is concerned with ... . 2. Economic products command ... . 3. The terms goods and services are used ... . 4. Consumer goods are intended ... . 5. The other type of economic product is ... . 6. Services include ... . 7. The difference between goods and services are ... . 8. Many other things — sunshine, rainfall, fresh air — are known ... .

VII. Ask someone

what the study of economics is concerned with; characteristics goods and             services have; the terms goods and  services describe; consumer goods           are intended for; capital goods are; a service is; services include;
the difference between goods and services are;

why sunshine, rainfall and fresh air are free products; free products can’t be     a major concern in the study of economics.

VIII. Translate into English:

1. Економiчнi продукти є дефiцитними в економiчному розу­мiннi. 2. Термiни товари та послуги вживаються для позначення бага­тьох речей, що потрiбнi людям. 3. Люди використовують споживчi товари, щоб задовольняти свої бажання та потреби. 4. Промисловi то­вари використовуються для виробництва iнших товарiв та послуг.
5. Послуга — це робота, яка виконується для когось. 6. До послуг нале­жать стрижка волосся, ремонт побутових приладiв та рiзнi види розваг. 7. Сонячне свiтло, дощ та свiже повiтря вiдомi як безкоштовнi про­дукти. 8. Життя було б неможливим без них.

READING DRILLS

1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words:

a) stress the first syllable:

value, valuable, worth, dollar, cent, price, diamond, paradox, monetary, coin, reason, scarce, scarcity, plentiful, measure, weight, height, vary, concept, wealth, product, tangible, useful, accurately, stockpile;

b) stress the second syllable:

collection, economist, observe, essential, ability, utility, capacity, decide, include, existence, enjoyment, transferable.

Text D

In economics the term value means something having a worth that can be expressed in dollars and cents. Someone may say, for example, that he or she has a valuable coin, the value is determined by the price someone would pay for the collection.

But what makes some things worth more than others? 1 The diamond-water paradox, also known as the paradox of value, helps answer this question. Early economists observed, that some things like water were essential to life, yet had little monetary value 2 . Other things, like diamonds, were not essential but had higher value.

Later economists decided that part of the reason was due to 3 scarcity. For example, water is so plentiful in many areas that it has little or no value. On the other hand, diamonds are so scarce that they have great value. In order to have value, it has to be somewhat scarce. Scarcity, however, is not enough. If something is to have value, it must also have utility, or the capacity to be useful to someone. Utility is not something that is fixed and can be measured like weight or height. Instead, the utility of goods or services may vary from one person to the next. One person may, for example, get a great deal of 4 enjoyment from a home computer, another may get very little. In the end, for something to have value, it must be scarce and have utility.

Another economic concept is wealth — the sum of those economic products that are tangible, scarce, useful and transferable from one person to another. Most economic goods are counted as wealth, but services are not.  The reason for this is that it is difficult to measure the value of services accurately. For example, it is difficult to measure the contribution made by people’s abilities and talents to a nation’s wealth.

A country’s total worth, then is the stockpile of useful scarce 5 , tangible things 6 in existence at a given time. National wealth includes all such items as natural resources, factories, stores, houses, theatres, books, video games etc.

COMMENTS

1. what makes some things worth more than others? — чому деякi речi коштують дорожче, нiж iншi?

2. monetary value — грошова вартiсть

3. the reason was due to — причина була викликана

4. a great deal of — багато

5. stockpile of useful scarce — запас корисного дефiциту

6. tangible things — реальнi речi

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

I. Form the new words with the following suffixes:

-able, -ible: response, consider, value, favour, change, transfer, measure;

-ful: peace, use, plenty, fruit, care;

-ity: personal, scarce, similar, capable;

-tion: populate, collect, educate, contribute, create, determine, produce.

II. Find equivalents:

1. monetary value

2. tangible things

3. paradox of value

4. nation’s wealth

5. country’s total worth

6. scarcity

7. to be useful to someone

8. valuable coin

9. to be essential to life

10. utility

11. economic concept

12. a great deal of

13. on the other hand

14. contribution

15. natural resources

a. дефiцит

б. цiнна монета

в. бути корисним комусь

г. бути необхiдним для життя

д. з іншого боку

е. загальне багатство країни

є. національне багатство

ж. економiчне поняття

з. внесок, вклад

и. реальнi речi

i. природні багатства

ї. парадокс вартості

й. багато

к. кориснiсть

л. грошова вартiсть

III. Fill in the blanks with prepositions or adverbs if necessary:

1. The value is determined ... the price someone would pay ... the product. 2. The diamond-water paradox is known as the paradox ... value.
3. ... order to have value, it has to be somewhat ... scarce. 4. The utility ... goods or services may vary ... one person ... the next. 5. One person may, for example, get a great deal ... enjoyment ... a home computer, another may get very ... . 6. Most ... economic goods are counted ... wealth, but services are not. 7. It is difficult to measure the contribution made ... people’s abilities and talents ... a nation’s wealth. 8. A country’s total worth is the stockpile ...useful, scarce, transferable and tangible things ... existence ... a given time.

I V. Match each term in Column A with its definition in Column B:

Column A                                           Column B

1. coin

a. The stockpile of useful, scarce, tangible things

in existence at a given time.

2. wealth

b. Goods that are scarce relative to the total amount of those that are desired.

3. scarcity

c. The paradox that many necessities of the life have      a low market price, while many luxuries with little use have a high market price.

4. economic goods

d. The total satisfaction derived from

the consumption of goods or services.

5. paradox of value

e. The total value of one’s tangible assets.

6. utility

f. The  worth of smth in terms of money or other goods for which it can be exchanged.

7. country’s total worth

g. A limit to the supply of productive resources

or consumer goods in relation to the producers or consumers demand for them.

8. value

h. Metallic forms of money.

V. Define which of the following items best completes the statement:

Scarcity is a condition that

a. exists only in poor countries.

b. only poor individuals experience.

c. all individuals and societies face.

d. rich people never experience.

VI. Complete the following sentences:

1. In economics the term value means ... . 2. Someone may say that ... .
3. Early economists observed that ... . 4. Later economists decided that ... . 5. If something is to have value ... . 6. Utility is not something that ... . 7. Someone may, for example, get ... . 8. Wealth is the sum of those economic products that are... . 9. National wealth includes all such items as ... . 10. A country’s total worth, then is ... .

VII. Answer the following questions:

1. What does the term value mean in economics? 2. What did early economists observe? 3. What did later economists decide? 4. Diamonds are so scarce that they have great value, aren’t they? 5. What has to be a thing in order to have value? 6. What is utility? 7. What does the term wealth mean in economics? 8. Are services counted as wealth? 9. Is it easy to measure the value of services? 10. What is the country’s total worth? 11. What does the national wealth include?

VIII. Translate into English:

1. Вартiсть визначається цiною, яку хтось заплатив би за товар.
2. Парадокс «вода — дiамант», вiдомий також як парадокс вартостi, допомагає вiдповiсти на питання, чому деякi предмети коштують дорожче, нiж iншi. 3. Ранiше економiсти помiтили, що вода необхiдна для життя, проте має малу грошову вартicть. 4. Iншi речi, такi як дiаманти, не є життєво необхiдними, але мають набагато вищу вартicть. 5. Коли щось має вартiсть, то воно повинно бути дефiцитним та корисним для когось. 6. Багатство — це сума реальних дефiцитних корисних економiчних продуктiв, якi можуть переходити вiд однiєї людини до iншої. 7. Бiльшiсть економiчних товарiв визнаються за багатство, а послуги — нi.

IX. Retell the text D using the following words and

word-combinations:

the term value ; valuable coin; diamond-water paradox; to be essential to life; the paradox of value; monetary value; higher value; the reason was due to; scarcity; on the other hand; to have great value; in order to; utility; a great deal of; the capacity to be useful to someone; economic concept; wealth; transferable; economic goods; contribution; people’s abilities and talents; nation’s wealth; in existence at a given time; tangible things; natural resources.

GRAMMAR EXERCISES

The Past Indefinite Tense

I. Give the forms of the Past Indefinite:

a) to regulate, to smile, to hope, to help, to learn, to stop, to plan, to visit, to offer, to prefer, to discuss, to study, to enjoy, to play, to cry;

b) to be, to have, to do, to go, to sit, to begin, to become, to make, to eat, to teach, to write, to leave, to tell, to think, to take, to get, to buy, to read, to say, to bring, to forget, to pay.

II. Answer the following questions:

1. When were you born? 2. Where were you born? 3. Where were you yesterday? 4. What was the weather like last Sunday? 5. When were you at the theatre last? 6. Whom were you at the theatre with? 7. What was your hometask for today? 8. Why wasn’t your teacher pleased with your answer?

I II. Make the following sentences interrogative and negative:

1. My brother was at home last night. 2. The baby was asleep. 3. There was somebody in the room. 4. You were glad to hear this news. 5. The students were at the meeting last Friday. 6. He was late for the train. 7. The trees were yellow in September. 8. The weather was sunny last week.

I V. Translate into English:

Де ти був учора ввечерi? Тебе не було вдома. — Я був у театрi.
Я часто ходжу в театр. — З ким ти був у театрi? — Я був там зi своїм другом. Я був дуже задоволений. Спектакль був дуже цiкавий i було дуже багато людей. А коли ти був у театрi востаннє? — Я не пам’ятаю, коли я був там востаннє. Це було дуже давно. Я не театрал. Я дуже люблю читати книжки i вчора я був у бiблiотецi. Я ходжу туди регулярно.

V. Give short and full answers:

1. Did you sleep well last night? 2. Did you wake up early this morning [1] ? ( it is no longer morning ) 3. Did you have breakfast this morning? 4. Did you drink some coffee before class? 5. Did you catch the bus this morning? 6. Did you understand what I said? 7. Did you tell your friend the news?

VI. Make the following sentences interrogative and negative:

1. The children slept in the open air. 2. He answered at once. 3. Mother turned off the gas. 4. They decided to go to the Crimea in July. 5. Olga passed all her exams. 6. We heard a terrible noise. 7. The clock struck twelve when he came. 8. They asked us to help them. 9. She thought about it.

VI I. Answer the following questions:

1. What time do you usually get up? 2. What time did you get up this morning? 3. What time did the sun rise this morning? 4. What did you have for breakfast? 5. What did you drink this morning? 6. What time do you go to bed? What time did you go to bed last night? 7. What did you buy last week? 8. What did you wear yesterday? 9. What did you do last night?
10. What did you have for lunch yesterday?

VIII. Put questions to the italisized words:

1. My aunt grew beautiful roses . 2. They lost their way because it was dark . 3. My friend visited his grandmother on Sunday . 4. The students worked on the farm in summer . 5. Our family went to the Caucasus last year . 6. Father talked with my teacher a few minutes ago. 7 . The concert lasted for two hours . 8 . The children drank milk in the morning .

I X . Complete the Disjunctive Questions:

a) 1. Your grandfather was a millionaire, ... ? 2. The twins arrived last night, ... ? 3. Bill put the money in the bank, ... ? 4. You had a good time, ... ?        5. That was Ann on the phone, ... ? 6. That was an easy test, ... ? 7. His mother was very proud of him, ... ? 8. You thought about it, ... ?

b) 1. Mary wasn’t angry, ... ? 2. You weren’t at home last night around nine, ... ? 3. Our teacher didn’t give us a home assignment, ... ?
4. There wasn’t any problem, ... ? 5. It didn’t matter very much, ... ? 6. He didn’t wake you up, ... ? 7. Nobody called on the phone, ... ? 8. The children weren’t surprised, ... ?

X . Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Indefinite Tense:

1. I didn’t want to meet Paul so when he ( enter ) I ( to leave ).
2. Luckily the driver ( see ) me and ( stop ) the lorry in time. 3. Last year I ( live ) near my office. I always ( walk ) there. I ( not work ) at this office five years ago. 4. When you ( return ) home the day before yesterday. — I ( return ) home at 7 o’clock the day before yesterday. 5. What language you ( study ) five years ago? — I ( study ) German. 6. Our family ( go ) to the Crimea last summer.

X I. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Perfect or

the Past Indefinite Tense:

1. You ( to lock ) the door before you left the house? 2. He ( not to smoke ) for two weeks. He is trying to give it up. 3. He ( to fall asleep ) at half past seven. 4. I ( to phone ) you twice yesterday and ( to get ) no answer. 5. It ( to be ) very cold this year. I wonder when it is going to get warmer. 6. I ( to read ) his books when I was at school. I ( enjoy ) them very much. 7. We ( to miss ) the bus. Now we’ll have to walk. 8. He ( to leave ) the house at 8.00. — Where he ( to go )? — I ( not to see ) where he ( to go ).

XII. Translate into English:

О котрiй годинi ти звичайно встаєш? — Я встаю о сьомiй годинi. — О котрiй годинi ти встав учора? — Учора я встав о восьмiй. Я завжди встаю о восьмiй у недiлю. — Що ти робив учора? Чому ти мені не зателефонував? Невже в тебе не було часу зателефонувати мені? — Учора я був дуже зайнятий. Я виконував домашнє завдання. Я читав i перекладав новий текст. Я перекладав його без словника, оскiльки вiн не був дуже важким. Потiм перекладав речення з української мови на англiйську. — Скiльки часу ти витратив на те, щоб виконати домашнє завдання? — Близько двох годин. Потiм я пiшов прогулятися. Погода була гарна, i на вулицi було багато людей.

The Functions of the Verb « to do»

XI II . State the functions of the verb «to do » :

1. What subjects do you study? 2. What are you going to do on Sunday? 3. Did you speak to him? — No, I didn’t . 4. Where does he live?  5. He will do it himself. 6. Don’t open the window. 7. What did he do there? 8. I am sorry you don’t know my brother. — But I do know him.
9. Do have another cup of tea. 10. Do stay with us a little longer.

The Future Indefinite Tense

XIV. Answer the following questions:

1. How old are you? How old will you be next year? How old will you be in three years? 2. At what time will you get up tomorrow? 3. Who will wake you up tomorrow?  4. What will you do tomorrow morning?
5. When will you take your examinations? 6. When will you help your mother about the house? 7. When will you do your homework? 8. Will you be busy tonight? 9. At what time will you go to bed?

XV. Make the following sentences interrogative and negative:

1. She will cook breakfast for us. 2. I shall see you on Monday. 3. They’ll buy a camera next month. 4. It will rain in the evening. 5. The students of our group will take their exams on Tuesday. 6. Our family will have dinner at three on Sunday. 7. She will study French next year. 8. The meeting will begin at ten.

X VI . Put questions to the italicized words:

1. Our friends will come to see us today . 2. Bob and John will work in the laboratory tomorrow . 3. His parents will be at home at six . 4. Ann won’t go to the cinema because she is busy . 5. The graduates will work in various fields of our economy . 6. There will be a meeting at three o’clock . 7. The party will start at eight . 8 . These students will write a dictation in three days .

XV II . Complete the Disjunctive Questions:

1. You’ll help me, ... ? 2. You won’t tell anyone, ... ? 3. This won’t take long, ... ? 4. You’ll be ready in a few minutes, ... ? 5. This student will graduate from the University next year, ... ? 6. Dinner will be at seven, ... ? 7. The plane will be on time, ... ? 8. Dr. Smith will be back in a few minutes, ... ? 9. Jane and Mark won’t be at the party, ... ? 10. The weather will turn cold in October, ... ?

XVIII . Put the verbs in brackets into the Future Indefinite Tense:

1. There ( be ) a lot of people at the meeting tomorrow. 2. I hope I ( find ) it. 3. I ( remember ) this day all my life. 4. Perhaps he ( arrive ) in time for lunch. 5. I am sure that you ( like ) our new house. 6. If you think it over you ( see ) that I am right. 7. He ( move ) to a new flat next week. 8. The book ( not be ) interesting for them. 9. I ( know ) the result in a week. 10. You ( understand ) when you are older. 11. You ( have ) time to help me tomorrow? 12. I never ( forgive ) him.

XI X . Translate into English:

О котрiй годинi ти встанеш завтра? — Я встану о сьомiй годинi. — Що ти робитимеш завтра вранцi? — Я поснiдаю, потiм зателефоную своєму друговi. Якщо буде гарна погода, ми пiдемо в лiс по гриби. — Коли ти будеш удома? — Я думаю, що буду вдома пiсля восьмої години вечора. — Чи будеш ти зайнятий завтра ввечерi пiсля восьмої? — Так, я буду вчити новий текст. У понедiлок у нас буде диктант. Але я сподіваюсь, що все буде гаразд i я напишу його без помилок. — Коли ти закiнчиш унiверситет? — Я закiнчу його через три роки i споді­ваюсь, що буду працювати менеджером в однiй із приватних фiрм.

The Imperative Mood

X X . Use the verbs in the Imperative Mood:

Pattern: to come in — Come in, please!

to explain the rule; to tell the news; to use my pen; to read the text aloud; to be ready for the seminar; to speak to the dean; to say that again.

X XI . Make the imperative sentences emphatic:

Pattern: Come to see us tonight! — Do come to see us tonight!

take care of yourself; tell me about it; make a good first impression; find a job; improve your health; perfect your English; get married.

XXII. Make the following negative:

Pattern A: Tell him the time. Don’t tell him the time.

Send them a telegram; turn off the light; give him my dictionary; close the door; study this rule; leave me alone; go away; enter the room; leave your things here; discuss this question now; make notes.

Pattern B: Let him come in. Don’t let him come in.
Let him not come in.

Let’s add this point to the plan; let them enter the library till ten; let him go there alone; let her do this work herself; let the students leave class early; let the children watch late-night horror movies.

Pattern C: go to bed after 10 p.m. — My parents let me go to bed after 10 p.m. They don’t let me go to bed after 10 p.m.

They didn’t let me go to bed after 10 p.m.

Travel alone; visit my friends’ homes; eat chocolate when I wanted; ride my bike on the road; go shopping alone; buy my own clothes.

XXIII . Use the words below to complete the sentences:

have a rest; go for a drink; go inside; ask someone for help; do another exercise; go and see it .

1. I’m thirsty. Let’s ... . 2. It’s very hot. Let’s ... . 3. There is a good film on at the cinema. Let’s ... . 4. I need more practice. Let’s ... . 5. We are lost. Let’s ... .  6. I’m tired. Let’s ... .

XXIV. Translate into English:

1. Не зачиняйте вiкнo. 2. Не плач. Усе буде гаразд. 3. Не гнівись на мене, будь ласка. 4. Обов’язково прочитайте цю статтю. 5. Покажiть менi цi документи, будь ласка. 6. Нехай вiн пiде туди сам. 7. Нехай вона зробить цю роботу сама. 8. Нехай вони зачекають на мене внизу.
9. Давайте не будемо говорити про це. 10. Принеси менi цю книжку.
11. Неодмінно приходьте до нас увечері. 12. Нехай вiн розповість про свою роботу.

EXERCISES for individual work

I. Change the following into the Past Indefinite:

1. I am tired. 2. The girl is very excited. 3. My friends are pleased to see me again. 4. Mary’s son is good at his English. 5. We are ready to have a test in English. 6. There is too much snow on the roof of the house. 7. There are some grammar mistakes in your composition. 8. They are ready to go there.

II. Complete the sentences:

Pattern: Bob is here today, but ... .

Bob is here today, but he wasn’t here yesterday

1. I am at home tonight, but ... .  2. Alice is busy today, but ... . 3. They are in class today, but ... . 4. My parents are at  work this morning, but ... .
5. I am tired today, but ... . 6. She is in her office today, but ... . 7. The classroom is hot today, but ... . 8. It’s cold this week, but ... .

III. Change the following sentences into the Past Indefinite:

1. I often see them in the park. 2. We don’t know his address.
3. George repairs his TV set himself. 4. She comes home very late. 5. They don’t change trains there. 6. My sister wants to become a teacher. 7. Susan feels tired. 8. He sleeps badly. 9. They go to work by bus. 10. Who knows the answer? 11. I meet her on Tuesdays. 12. He always wears black. 13. I know what he wants. 14. His roses grow well. 15. His father works in a bank.
16. He leaves the house at 8.00.

I V. Change the following sentences into the Future Indefinite:

1. They are at home. 2. We sleep in the open air. 3. The last train leaves at midnight. 4. I am busy on weekdays. 5. My brother is a manager.
6. I finish my work. 7. They fish in the lake. 8. She refuses to discuss it.
9. Our University has a camp at the seaside. 10. The children help their father.

V . Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Perfect or

the Past Indefinite Tense:

1. He ( live ) in London for two years and then ( go ) to Edinburgh. 2. He ( go ) out ten minutes ago. 3. Shakespeare ( write ) a lot of plays. 4. He just ( go ) out. 5. When he ( arrive )? — He ( arrive ) at 2.00. 6. You ( have ) breakfast yet? — Yes, I ( have ) it at 8.00. 7. The newspaper ( come )? — Yes, Ann is reading it. 8. We ( meet ) him last June. 9. You ( see ) the moon last night? 10. I can’t go out because I ( not finish ) my work. 11. I ( have ) no news from him since he ( leave ) home. 12. I ( not see ) him for three years. I wonder  where he is. 13. The play just ( begin ). You are a little late. 14. The rain ( stop ), you can go out. 15. They never ( be ) to any foreign countries. 16. She just ( leave ) you a message. 17. I ( go ) to the cinema last night. 18. They ( send ) us several telegrams lately. 19. He ( arrive ) on Sunday. 20. The students ( pass ) already all their credit-tests.

V I . Open the brackets:

1. Let ( we ) discuss these questions. 2. Let ( he ) translate these letters from Ukrainian into English. 3. Let ( he ) do it himself. 4. Let ( he ) think it over. 5. Let ( they ) return those books to the library today. 6. Let ( we ) read  that book about our city. 7. Let ( she ) know about it. 8. Don’t let ( they ) come in. 9. He is ill. Let ( I ) go to see him. 10. Let ( she ) learn the new words from Lesson 2.

VII . Translate into English:

1. Де Петренко? — Він поїхав до Лондона. — Коли він поїхав? — Він поїхав туди кілька днів тому. — Ви коли-небудь були в Лондоні? — Ні. Я ніколи не був у Лондоні. 2. Останнім часом я не одержував листів від своїх батьків. — Коли ти одержав останнього листа? — Місяць тому. З того часу я вже надіслав їм кілька листів. 3. Ви його знаєте? — Так. Я знаю його дуже добре. — Скільки часу ви його знаєте? — Я знаю його багато років. 4. Мій друг вступив до університету минулого року. Він тоді не знав англійської мови добре, але він працював наполегливо і вивчав її щодня. Зараз він добре розмовляє англійською мовою. Він уже прочитав дві англійські книжки. 4. Нехай він перекладе це слово. 5. Дозвольте зробити це для вас. 6. Повідомте нас, коли ви приїдете. 7. Давайте зустрінемось о п’ятій годині. Не спізнюйтесь, будь ласка. 8. Дозвольте мені трохи відпочити.



[1] If the period is over or reference is made to a particular past point of time within that period, the Past Indefinite is used.

 

Бывает случается так, что у вас есть доманшний номер человека, а код города вы не знаете, дело срочное и здесь как нельзя кстати оказываются под рукой коды городов , всегда актуальный список.

 

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